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      The changing prevalence and incidence of dementia over time — current evidence

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          Abstract

          Determining how the incidence and prevalence of dementia changes over time requires population-based studies that use consistent methods over time. In this Review, the authors discuss the results of 14 worldwide studies that have attempted this approach. The findings consistently indicate that the incidence and prevalence of dementia, at least in Western countries, is stable or declining.

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          Most cited references48

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          Ways toward an early diagnosis in Alzheimer's disease: the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI).

          With the increasing life expectancy in developed countries, the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thus its socioeconomic impact are growing. Increasing knowledge over the last years about the pathomechanisms involved in AD allow for the development of specific treatment strategies aimed at slowing down or even preventing neuronal death in AD. However, this requires also that (1) AD can be diagnosed with high accuracy, because non-AD dementias would not benefit from an AD-specific treatment; (2) AD can be diagnosed in very early stages when any intervention would be most effective; and (3) treatment efficacy can be reliably and meaningfully monitored. Although there currently is no ideal biomarker that would fulfill all these requirements, there is increasing evidence that a combination of currently existing neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood biomarkers can provide important complementary information and thus contribute to a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of AD. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is exploring which combinations of these biomarkers are the most powerful for diagnosis of AD and monitoring of treatment effects.
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            Survival, disabilities in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among the oldest-old in China: a cohort study

            The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest-old individuals between 1998 and 2008.
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              Trends in the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment in the United States.

              Declines in heart disease and stroke mortality rates are conventionally attributed to reductions in cigarette smoking, recognition and treatment of hypertension and diabetes, effective medications to improve serum lipid levels and to reduce clot formation, and general lifestyle improvements. Recent evidence implicates these and other cerebrovascular factors in the development of a substantial proportion of dementia cases. Analyses were undertaken to determine whether corresponding declines in age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment have occurred in recent years. Data spanning 1 or 2 decades were examined from community-based epidemiological studies in Minnesota, Illinois, and Indiana, and from the Health and Retirement Study, which is a national survey. Although some decline was observed in the Minnesota cohort, no statistically significant trends were apparent in the community studies. A significant reduction in cognitive impairment measured by neuropsychological testing was identified in the national survey. Cautious optimism appears justified. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Neurology
                Nat Rev Neurol
                Springer Nature
                1759-4758
                1759-4766
                May 12 2017
                May 12 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrneurol.2017.63
                28497805
                46598b6b-7f0e-402f-96f8-45abf2c0715e
                © 2017
                History

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