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      Neohexostoma gymnosardae n. sp. (Monogenea, Hexostomatidae), a gill parasite of Gymnosarda unicolor (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Scombridae) in the South China Sea Translated title: Neohexostoma gymnosardae n. sp. (Monogenea, Hexostomatidae), un parasite branchial de Gymnosarda unicolor (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Scombridae) dans la mer de Chine méridionale

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , *

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Monogenea, Hexostomatidae, New species, Gymnosarda unicolor, the South China Sea

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          Abstract

          Parasite biodiversity of fish in coral reefs of the South China Sea is still incompletely explored. We describe here a new species of Neohexostoma (Monogenea: Hexostomatidae) from the gill filaments of the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Scombridae), collected off Yongshu Reef, South China Sea. Neohexostoma gymnosardae n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by the following features: (i) haptor clearly marked from body proper by a strongly constricted peduncle, divided in its posterior margin into two symmetrical lobes, (ii) vagina armed with scattered small blunt spines, (iii) eggs tied by their long polar filaments, (vi) esophagus with several lateral diverticula, (v) intestinal ceca unfused and extending into the haptor. We present an analysis of the relationships of this monogenean based on partial 28S rDNA sequences. An identification key for species of Neohexostoma is provided. This is the first member of the genus Neohexostoma known to parasitize a species of Gymnosarda.

          Translated abstract

          La biodiversité parasitaire des poissons dans les récifs coralliens de la mer de Chine méridionale est encore incomplètement explorée. Nous décrivons ici une nouvelle espèce de Neohexostoma (Monogenea, Hexostomatidae) des filaments branchiaux du thon à dents de chien Gymnosarda unicolor (Scombridae), collecté au large du récif de Yongshu, mer de Chine méridionale. Neohexostoma gymnosardae n. sp. se distingue de ses congénères par les caractéristiques suivantes : (i) hapteur clairement séparé du corps proprement dit par un pédoncule fortement resserré, divisé dans sa marge postérieure en deux lobes symétriques, (ii) vagin armé de petites épines émoussées éparses, (iii) œufs attachés par leurs longs filaments polaires, (vi) œsophage avec plusieurs diverticules latéraux, (v) caeca intestinaux non fusionnés et s’étendant dans le hapteur. Nous présentons une analyse des relations de ce monogène basée sur des séquences partielles d’ADNr 28S. Une clé d’identification des espèces de Neohexostoma est fournie. Ceci est le premier membre du genre Neohexostoma connu pour parasiter une espèce de Gymnosarda.

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          Most cited references 46

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

            A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
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              A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.

               Motoo Kimura (1980)
              Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or "transition" type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or "transversion" type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = -(1/2) ln [(1-2P-Q) square root of 1-2Q]. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = -(1/2) ln (1-2P-Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                11 December 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, College of Life Science, South China Normal University Guangzhou 510631 China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: yk_1256@ 123456163.com
                Article
                parasite200102 10.1051/parasite/2020067
                10.1051/parasite/2020067
                7731911
                33306023
                © P.-W. Zhu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article

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