ObjectiveISSICEU analyses sources of stability and instability in the Caucasus regarding political regimes, civic participation, economic interdependencies and neighbourhood influences. We evaluate the implications for military, political, economic and societal security.We deliver three relevant products for EU policy formulation: We analyse and map emerging conflicts of local, regional and international dimensions and highlight crucial actors and mechanisms. We elaborate on scenarios concerning potential future security developments. We give concise policy recommendations on opportunities for the EU to influence conflict solution and long-term stability in the Caucasus societies and the whole region.ISSICEU disseminates the findings as follows: policy briefs; expert workshops in relevant EU agencies and for stakeholders in EU countries and the Caucasus; a scenario-workshop at the final stage.ISSICEU explores intra-societal frictions and their regional impact in the political regimes focussing mainly on dynamics of communal governance; the interplay of religious and state actors and practices of civic participation. We analyse inter-societal sources of (in)stability regarding economic dependencies; political and societal relations between the Caucasus and neighbourhood states.ISSICEU makes comparative analyses across sub-regions and studies aspects of inter-societal relations. We consider the historical and contemporary ties among the societies. We study the Caucasus in its diversity and cohesiveness. Cases are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Chechnya. In the neighbourhood we focus on Turkey and Iran.ISSICEU takes theory-informed, interdisciplinary and strongly inductive approaches, able to adequately identify phenomena as they manifest themselves in the region and to give innovative policy recommendations.