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      Assessment of synchronous neural activities revealed by regional homogeneity in individuals with acute eye pain: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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          Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that pain-related diseases are associated with brain function and anatomical abnormalities, whereas altered synchronous neural activity in acute eye pain (EP) patients has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore whether or not synchronous neural activity changes were measured with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method in acute EP patients.


          A total of 20 patients (15 males and 5 females) with EP and 20 healthy controls (HCs) consisting of 15 and 5 age-, sex-, and education-matched males and females, respectively, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The ReHo method was applied to assess synchronous neural activity changes.


          Compared with HCs, acute EP patients had significantly lower ReHo values in the left precentral/postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area [BA]3/4), right precentral/postcentral gyrus (BA3/4), and left middle frontal gyrus (BA6). In contrast, higher ReHo values in acute EP patients were observed in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA11), right inferior parietal lobule (BA39/40), and left precuneus (BA7). However, no relationship was found between the mean ReHo signal values of the different areas and clinical manifestations, which included both the duration and degree of pain in EP patients.


          Our study highlighted that acute EP patients showed altered synchronous neural activities in many brain regions, including somatosensory regions. These findings might provide useful information for exploration of the neural mechanisms underlying acute EP.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Functional connectivity in single and multislice echoplanar imaging using resting-state fluctuations.

          A previous report of correlations in low-frequency resting-state fluctuations between right and left hemisphere motor cortices in rapidly sampled single-slice echoplanar data is confirmed using a whole-body echoplanar MRI scanner at 1.5 T. These correlations are extended to lower sampling rate multislice echoplanar acquisitions and other right/left hemisphere-symmetric functional cortices. The specificity of the correlations in the lower sampling-rate acquisitions is lower due to cardiac and respiratory-cycle effects which are aliased into the pass-band of the low-pass filter. Data are combined for three normal right-handed male subjects. Correlations to left hemisphere motor cortex, visual cortex, and amygdala are measured in long resting-state scans.
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            Muscle and movement representations in the primary motor cortex.

            What aspects of movement are represented in the primary motor cortex (M1): relatively low-level parameters like muscle force, or more abstract parameters like handpath? To examine this issue, the activity of neurons in M1 was recorded in a monkey trained to perform a task that dissociates three major variables of wrist movement: muscle activity, direction of movement at the wrist joint, and direction of movement in space. A substantial group of neurons in M1 (28 out of 88) displayed changes in activity that were muscle-like. Unexpectedly, an even larger group of neurons in M1 (44 out of 88) displayed changes in activity that were related to the direction of wrist movement in space independent of the pattern of muscle activity that generated the movement. Thus, both "muscles" and "movements" appear to be strongly represented in M1.
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              Neural synchrony indexes disordered perception and cognition in schizophrenia.

              Current views of schizophrenia suggest that it results from abnormalities in neural circuitry, but empirical evidence in the millisecond range of neural activity has been difficult to obtain. In pursuit of relevant evidence, we previously demonstrated that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal patterns of stimulus-evoked phaselocking of the electroencephalogram in the gamma band (30-100 Hz). These patterns may reflect impairments in neural assemblies, which have been proposed to use gamma-band oscillations as a mechanism for synchronization. Here, we report the unique finding that, in both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients, visual Gestalt stimuli elicit a gamma-band oscillation that is phase-locked to reaction time and hence may reflect processes leading to conscious perception of the stimuli. However, the frequency of this oscillation is lower in schizophrenics than in healthy individuals. This finding suggests that, although synchronization must occur for perception of the Gestalt, it occurs at a lower frequency because of a reduced capability of neural networks to support high-frequency synchronization in the brain of schizophrenics. Furthermore, the degree of phase locking of this oscillation is correlated with visual hallucinations, thought disorder, and disorganization in the schizophrenia patients. These data provide support for linking dysfunctional neural circuitry and the core symptoms of schizophrenia.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                20 April 2018
                : 11
                : 843-850
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
                [3 ]The Department of Medicine, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yi Shao; Gui-Ping Gao, Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Number 17, Yongwaizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi, China, Tel +86 791 8869 2520, Email freebee99@ 123456163.com ; ggpn@ 123456sina.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Tang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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