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      The molecular mechanisms of Aloin induce gastric cancer cells apoptosis by targeting High Mobility Group Box 1

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          Abstract

          Purpose: Aloin (ALO), a bioactive ingredient extracted from aloe vera, has anti-tumor effects. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear DNA-binding protein, has been implicated in various cancer types. Highly expressed HMGB1 is closely associated with tumor cells apoptosis, proliferation and migration. We investigated the specific molecular mechanisms by which ALO-induced apoptosis by targeting HMGB1 in gastric cancer cells.

          Materials and methods: Human gastric cancer HGC-27 cells were treated with different doses of ALO (100, 200 and 400 µg/ml) for 24 h, after which DAPI staining was used to observe the nuclear morphology, Annexin V/PI double staining assay was used to determine the rate of apoptosis; Western blotting was used to detect the levels of PARP, pro-caspase3, HMGB1 and RAGE; nuclear translocation of HMGB1 was determined by conducting a nucleoplasm separation experiment. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay was used to detect release of HMGB1. The HGC-27 cells, transfected with HMGB1 shRNA plasmids, were stimulated with ALO for 24 h, after which a flow cytometry assay was used to detect the rate of apoptosis. HGC-27 cells were pre-treated with or without ALO and then stimulated with rhHMGB1, the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, P70S6K, S6, 4EBP1, ERK, P90RSK, cAMP regulatory element binding (CREB) were detected by Western blotting.

          Results: After different doses of ALO treatment, the nuclei showed morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Apoptotic rates were enhanced in a dose dependent manner. The level of cleaved PARP was enhanced and pro-caspase3, HMGB1 and RAGE levels were reduced, HMGB1 nuclear translocation and release were inhibited. The activation of rhHMGB1-induced Akt-mTOR-P70S6K and ERK-CREB signalling pathways was inhibited by ALO. Blocking these signalling pathways by special inhibitors and HMGB1 knockdown could enhance ALO-induced HGC-27 cell apoptosis.

          Conclusion: ALO- induced HGC-27 cell apoptosis by down-regulating expressions of HMGB1 and RAGE, inhibiting HMGB1 release and then suppressing rhHMGB1-induced activation of Akt-mTOR-P70S6K and ERK-P90RSK-CREB signalling pathways.

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          Most cited references 27

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          HMGB1 release induced by liver ischemia involves Toll-like receptor 4–dependent reactive oxygen species production and calcium-mediated signaling

          Ischemic tissues require mechanisms to alert the immune system of impending cell damage. The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can activate inflammatory pathways when released from ischemic cells. We elucidate the mechanism by which HMGB1, one of the key alarm molecules released during liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), is mobilized in response to hypoxia. HMGB1 release from cultured hepatocytes was found to be an active process regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Optimal production of ROS and subsequent HMGB1 release by hypoxic hepatocytes required intact Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. To elucidate the downstream signaling pathways involved in hypoxia-induced HMGB1 release from hepatocytes, we examined the role of calcium signaling in this process. HMGB1 release induced by oxidative stress was markedly reduced by inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), a family of proteins involved in a wide range of calcium-linked signaling events. In addition, CaMK inhibition substantially decreased liver damage after I/R and resulted in accumulation of HMGB1 in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hypoxia-induced HMGB1 release by hepatocytes is an active, regulated process that occurs through a mechanism promoted by TLR4-dependent ROS production and downstream CaMK-mediated signaling.
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            Expression of receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is closely associated with the invasive and metastatic activity of gastric cancer.

            The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a newly recognized factor regulating cancer cell invasion and metastasis. This study investigated the expression of RAGE in gastric carcinomas and its association with invasion and metastasis. Of eight gastric cancer cell lines examined, seven constitutively expressed RAGE messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), MKN45 being the exception. RAGE protein expression of MKN28 cells treated with RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide was nine times less than that of sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated cells. Growth of cells under RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment was not different from that seen under sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in MKN28 (a cell line producing high levels of RAGE) and MKN45 (a non-RAGE-expressing cell line). RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment suppressed the invasive activity of RAGE-positive MKN28 cells, as estimated by in vitro invasion assay. The number of MKN28 cells invading the type IV collagen-coated membrane under RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment was significantly lower than under RAGE sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment (p<0.0001). In contrast, antisense and sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated RAGE-negative MKN45 cells showed no difference. A wound-healing assay showed that no RAGE antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated MKN28 cells migrated into the scraped area, whereas sense S-oligodeoxynucleotide-treated cells showed many budding nests in the scraped area. Immunohistochemistry of gastric carcinoma tissue showed that 62 (65%) of the 96 cases examined were RAGE-positive and that poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas preferentially expressed RAGE protein (38/42, 90%) (p<0.0001). Strong RAGE immunoreactivity was also correlated with depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis (p<0.0001). RAGE-positive cancer cells tended to be distributed at the invasive front of primary tumours and were detected in all metastatic foci in lymph nodes. In contrast, a major RAGE ligand, amphoterin, was expressed in 82 (85%) of the 96 cases, regardless of histological type and disease progression. RAGE expression appears to be closely associated with invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Targeting HMGB1 in inflammation.

              High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein present in the nuclei and cytoplasm of nearly all cell types, is a necessary and sufficient mediator of inflammation during sterile and infection-associated responses. Elevated levels of HMGB1 in serum and tissues occur during sterile tissue injury and during infection, and targeting HMGB1 with antibodies or specific antagonists is protective in established preclinical inflammatory disease models including lethal endotoxemia or sepsis, collagen-induced arthritis, and ischemia-reperfusion induced tissue injury. Future advances in this field will stem from understanding the biological basis for the success of targeting HMGB1 to therapeutic improvement in the treatment of inflammation, infection and ischemia-reperfusion induced injury. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                17 April 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 1221-1231
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui 241002, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Active Biological Macro‑Molecules, Wannan Medical College , Wuhu, Anhui 241002, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yao Zhang; Zhilin QiDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wannan Medical College , No. 22 Wenchang West Road, Wuhu, Anhui241002, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail zhangyao@ 123456ahedu.gov.cn ; 422627721@ 123456qq.com
                Article
                201818
                10.2147/DDDT.S201818
                6489572
                © 2019 Tao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 31, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                aloin, gastric cancer, hmgb1, akt, mtor, p70s6k, erk, p90rsk, creb, apoptosis

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