17 April 2019
Purpose: Aloin (ALO), a bioactive ingredient extracted from aloe vera, has anti-tumor effects. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear DNA-binding protein, has been implicated in various cancer types. Highly expressed HMGB1 is closely associated with tumor cells apoptosis, proliferation and migration. We investigated the specific molecular mechanisms by which ALO-induced apoptosis by targeting HMGB1 in gastric cancer cells.
Materials and methods: Human gastric cancer HGC-27 cells were treated with different doses of ALO (100, 200 and 400 µg/ml) for 24 h, after which DAPI staining was used to observe the nuclear morphology, Annexin V/PI double staining assay was used to determine the rate of apoptosis; Western blotting was used to detect the levels of PARP, pro-caspase3, HMGB1 and RAGE; nuclear translocation of HMGB1 was determined by conducting a nucleoplasm separation experiment. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay was used to detect release of HMGB1. The HGC-27 cells, transfected with HMGB1 shRNA plasmids, were stimulated with ALO for 24 h, after which a flow cytometry assay was used to detect the rate of apoptosis. HGC-27 cells were pre-treated with or without ALO and then stimulated with rhHMGB1, the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, P70S6K, S6, 4EBP1, ERK, P90RSK, cAMP regulatory element binding (CREB) were detected by Western blotting.
Results: After different doses of ALO treatment, the nuclei showed morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Apoptotic rates were enhanced in a dose dependent manner. The level of cleaved PARP was enhanced and pro-caspase3, HMGB1 and RAGE levels were reduced, HMGB1 nuclear translocation and release were inhibited. The activation of rhHMGB1-induced Akt-mTOR-P70S6K and ERK-CREB signalling pathways was inhibited by ALO. Blocking these signalling pathways by special inhibitors and HMGB1 knockdown could enhance ALO-induced HGC-27 cell apoptosis.
Conclusion: ALO- induced HGC-27 cell apoptosis by down-regulating expressions of HMGB1 and RAGE, inhibiting HMGB1 release and then suppressing rhHMGB1-induced activation of Akt-mTOR-P70S6K and ERK-P90RSK-CREB signalling pathways.