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      Hyponatremia, Arginine Vasopressin Dysregulation, and Vasopressin Receptor Antagonism

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          Hyponatremia is often associated with arginine vasopressin (AVP) dysregulation that is regulated by the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract in response to changes in plasma osmolality, commonly in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Potentially lethal complications of hyponatremia most frequently involve the central nervous system and include anorexia, fatigue, lethargy, delirium, seizures, hypothermia and coma, and require prompt treatment. Chronic hyponatremia also complicates patient care and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly among patients with congestive heart failure. Conventional treatments for hyponatremia (e.g. fluid restriction, diuretic treatment, and sodium replacement) may not be effective in all patients and can lead to significant adverse events. Preclinical and clinical trial results have shown that AVP receptor antagonism is a promising approach to the treatment of hyponatremia that directly addresses the effects of increased AVP and consequent decreased aquaresis, the electrolyte-sparing excretion of free water. Agents that antagonize V<sub>2</sub> receptors promote aquaresis and can lead to increased serum sodium. Dual-receptor antagonism, in which both V<sub>2</sub> and V<sub>1A</sub> receptors are blocked, may provide additional benefits in patients with hyponatremia.

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          Effects of tolvaptan, a vasopressin antagonist, in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure: a randomized controlled trial.

          Nearly 1 million hospitalizations for chronic heart failure occur yearly in the United States, with most related to worsening systemic congestion. Diuretic use, the mainstay therapy for congestion, is associated with electrolyte abnormalities and worsening renal function. In contrast to diuretics, the vasopressin antagonist tolvaptan may increase net volume loss in heart failure without adversely affecting electrolytes and renal function. To evaluate the short- and intermediate-term effects of tolvaptan in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial conducted at 45 centers in the United States and Argentina and enrolling 319 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40% and hospitalized for heart failure with persistent signs and symptoms of systemic congestion despite standard therapy. After admission, patients were randomized to receive 30, 60, or 90 mg/d of oral tolvaptan or placebo in addition to standard therapy, including diuretics. The study drug was continued for up to 60 days. In-hospital outcome was change in body weight at 24 hours after randomization; outpatient outcome was worsening heart failure (defined as death, hospitalization, or unscheduled visits for heart failure) at 60 days after randomization. Median (interquartile range) body weight at 24 hours after randomization decreased by -1.80 (-3.85 to -0.50), -2.10 (-3.10 to -0.85), -2.05 (-2.80 to -0.60), and -0.60 (-1.60 to 0.00) kg in the groups receiving tolvaptan 30, 60, and 90 mg/d, and placebo, respectively (P< or =.008 for all tolvaptan groups vs placebo). The decrease in body weight with tolvaptan was not associated with changes in heart rate or blood pressure, nor did it result in hypokalemia or worsening renal function. There were no differences in worsening heart failure at 60 days between the tolvaptan and placebo groups (P =.88 for trend). In post hoc analysis, 60-day mortality was lower in tolvaptan-treated patients with renal dysfunction or severe systemic congestion. Tolvaptan administered in addition to standard therapy may hold promise for management of systemic congestion in patients hospitalized for heart failure.
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            The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

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              Vasopressin V2-receptor blockade with tolvaptan in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a double-blind, randomized trial.

              In this study, we evaluated the effects of tolvaptan (OPC-41061), a novel, oral, nonpeptide vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This was a double-blind study investigating the effects of three doses of tolvaptan and placebo in patients with CHF. After a run-in period, 254 patients were randomly assigned to placebo (n=63) or tolvaptan [30 mg (n=64), 45 mg (n=64), or 60 mg (n=63)] once daily for 25 days. Patients were not fluid-restricted and were maintained on stable doses of furosemide. At day 1, when compared with baseline, a decrease in body weight of -0.79+/-0.99, -0.96+/-0.93, and -0.84+/-0.02 kg was observed in the 30-, 45-, and 60-mg tolvaptan groups, respectively, and a body weight increase of +0.32+/-0.46 kg in the placebo group (P<0.001 for all treatment groups versus placebo). Although the initial decrease in body weight was maintained during the study, no further reduction was observed beyond the first day. An increase in urine volume was observed with tolvaptan when compared with placebo (3.9+/-0.6, 4.2+/-0.9, 4.6+/-0.4, and 2.3+/-0.2 L/24 hours at day 1 for 30-, 45-, and 60-mg tolvaptan groups, and placebo, respectively; P<0.001). A decrease in edema and a normalization of serum sodium in patients with hyponatremia were observed in the tolvaptan group but not in the placebo group. No significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, serum potassium, or renal function were observed. In patients with CHF, tolvaptan was well tolerated; it reduced body weight and edema and normalized serum sodium in the hyponatremic patients.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                January 2007
                19 January 2007
                : 26
                : 6
                : 579-589
                aDepartments of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, and Harry S. Truman VA Medical Center, Columbia, Mo., bState University of New York, Brooklyn, N.Y., and cUniversity of Arizona Diabetes Center, Tucson, Ariz., USA
                98028 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:579–589
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 85, Pages: 11
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