Hyponatremia is often associated with arginine vasopressin (AVP) dysregulation that is regulated by the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract in response to changes in plasma osmolality, commonly in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Potentially lethal complications of hyponatremia most frequently involve the central nervous system and include anorexia, fatigue, lethargy, delirium, seizures, hypothermia and coma, and require prompt treatment. Chronic hyponatremia also complicates patient care and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, particularly among patients with congestive heart failure. Conventional treatments for hyponatremia (e.g. fluid restriction, diuretic treatment, and sodium replacement) may not be effective in all patients and can lead to significant adverse events. Preclinical and clinical trial results have shown that AVP receptor antagonism is a promising approach to the treatment of hyponatremia that directly addresses the effects of increased AVP and consequent decreased aquaresis, the electrolyte-sparing excretion of free water. Agents that antagonize V<sub>2</sub> receptors promote aquaresis and can lead to increased serum sodium. Dual-receptor antagonism, in which both V<sub>2</sub> and V<sub>1A</sub> receptors are blocked, may provide additional benefits in patients with hyponatremia.