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      A 2A Adenosine Receptor Agonist and PDE 4 Inhibition Delays Inflammation but Fails to Reduce Injury in Experimental Obstructive Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background: Renal interstitial inflammation is a consequence of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Following ischemia/reperfusion, adenosine reduces renal inflammation and injury, effects which are potentiated by type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitors. We therefore studied the effects of A<sub>2A</sub> adenosine receptor agonist (ATL146e), and PDE4 inhibitor (rolipram) in mice subjected to UUO. Methods: Mice were subjected to UUO or sham operation, and received either vehicle or ATL146e + rolipram by osmotic minipump for 1 or 7 days. At 1, 3, 7, or 14 days after operation, renal macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, proliferation, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were quantitated, and expressions of IL-6 and TGF-β mRNA were determined. Results: ATL146e + rolipram reduced macrophage infiltration by 40% after 3 days UUO (p < 0.05). Tubular apoptosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were increased by 7 or 14 days UUO, but were unaffected by ATL146e + rolipram. However, cellular proliferation was increased by ATL146e + rolipram in the obstructed kidney. ATL146e + rolipram had no effect on the renal expression of IL-6 and TGF-β mRNA. Conclusions: A<sub>2A </sub>receptor activation and PDE4 inhibition transiently reduce renal macrophage infiltration, but do not ameliorate the renal response to UUO. We speculate that the persistent stimulus for inflammation triggered by UUO cannot be reversed by agents that suppress inflammatory cell activation alone.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Molecular approach to adenosine receptors: receptor-mediated mechanisms of tissue protection.

          Adenosine accumulation during ischemia and inflammation protects tissues from injury. In ischemic tissues adenosine accumulates due to inhibition of adenosine kinase, and in inflamed tissues adenosine is formed from adenine nucleotides that are released from many cells including platelets, mast cells, nerves, and endothelium. Nucleotides are rapidly converted to adenosine by a family of ecto-nucleotidases including CD39 and CD73. Activation of A(1) and possibly A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) protects heart and other tissues by preconditioning through a pathway including protein kinase C and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels. Activation of A(2A) receptors limits reperfusion injury by inhibiting inflammatory processes in neutrophils, platelets, macrophages and T cells. Adenosine produces proinflammatory responses mediated by receptors that vary among species; A(3) and A(2B) receptors mediate degranulation of rodent and human or canine mast cells, respectively. Novel adenosine receptor subtype-selective ligands have recently been developed. These include MRS1754 (A(2B) blocker), MRS1220 (A(3) blocker), MRE 3008F20 (human A(3) blocker), MRS1523 (rat A(3) blocker), and ATL146e (A(2A) agonist). These new pharmacologic tools will help investigators to sort out how adenosine protects tissues from injury and to identify new therapeutic agents that hold promise for the treatment of inflammatory and ischemic diseases.
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            Adenosine inhibits IL-12 and TNF-[alpha] production via adenosine A2a receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms.

            Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a crucial cytokine in the regulation of T helper 1 vs. T helper 2 immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine on the production of IL-12. In mouse macrophages, adenosine suppressed IL-12 production. Although the order of potency of adenosine receptor agonists suggested the involvement of A2a receptors, data obtained with A2a receptor-deficient mice showed that the adenosine suppression of IL-12 and even TNF-alpha production is only partly mediated by A2a receptor ligation. Studies with adenosine receptor antagonists or the adenosine uptake blocker dipyridamole showed that adenosine released endogenously also decreases IL-12. Although adenosine increases IL-10 production, the inhibition of IL-12 production is independent of the increased IL-10. The mechanism of action of adenosine was not associated with alterations of the activation of the p38 and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases or the phosphorylation of the c-Jun terminal kinase. Adenosine failed to affect steady-state levels of either IL-12 p35 or p40 mRNA, but augmented IL-10 mRNA levels. In summary, adenosine inhibits IL-12 production via various adenosine receptors. These results support the notion that adenosine-based therapies might be useful in certain autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases.
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              The cytokine-adhesion molecule cascade in ischemia/reperfusion injury of the rat kidney. Inhibition by a soluble P-selectin ligand.

              Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with renal transplantation may influence both early graft function and late changes. The initial (
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2005
                July 2005
                15 April 2005
                : 100
                : 3
                : e113-e123
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, Ruprecht Karls University, Heidelberg, Germany, and Departments of bPediatrics, cMedicine, and dMolecular Physiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., USA
                Article
                85057 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;100:e113–e123
                10.1159/000085057
                15824514
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 47, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/85057
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