This article has been produced to review the literature on symptomatic and asymptomatic intrauterine adhesions. Electronic resources including Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), Current Contents, and EMBASE were searched using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), including all subheadings, and the keywords "Asherman syndrome," "Hysteroscopic lysis of adhesions," "Hysteroscopic synechiolysis," "Hysteroscopy and adhesion," "Intrauterine adhesions," "Intrauterine septum and synechiae," and "Obstetric outcomes after intrauterine surgery." The vast majority of evidence in the literature consists of uncontrolled case series, with only intrauterine adhesion barriers being assessed in a randomized controlled format. This article reviews epidemiology, pathologic features, classification systems, and treatments. Seven classification systems are described, with no universal acceptance of any one system and no validation of any of them. Hysteroscopy is the mainstay of both diagnosis and treatment, with medical treatments having no role in management. There is a wide range of treatment techniques with no controlled comparative studies, and assessments are descriptive and report fertility and menstrual outcomes, with more severe adhesions having the worst clinical outcomes. One of the most important features of treatment is prevention of recurrence, with the best available evidence demonstrating that newly developed adhesion barriers such as hyaluronic acid show promise for preventing new adhesions. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.