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      Researching glutamate – induced cytotoxicity in different cell lines: a comparative/collective analysis/study

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          Abstract

          Although glutamate is one of the most important excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, its excessive extracellular concentration leads to uncontrolled continuous depolarization of neurons, a toxic process called, excitotoxicity. In excitotoxicity glutamate triggers the rise of intracellular Ca 2+ levels, followed by up regulation of nNOS, dysfunction of mitochondria, ROS production, ER stress, and release of lysosomal enzymes. Excessive calcium concentration is the key mediator of glutamate toxicity through over activation of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. In addition, glutamate accumulation can also inhibit cystine (CySS) uptake by reversing the action of the CySS/glutamate antiporter. Reversal of the antiporter action reinforces the aforementioned events by depleting neurons of cysteine and eventually glutathione’s reducing potential. Various cell lines have been employed in the pursuit to understand the mechanism(s) by which excitotoxicity affects the cells leading them ultimately to their demise. In some cell lines glutamate toxicity is exerted mainly through over activation of NMDA, AMPA, or kainate receptors whereas in other cell lines lacking such receptors, the toxicity is due to glutamate induced oxidative stress. However, in the greatest majority of the cell lines ionotropic glutamate receptors are present, co-existing to CySS/glutamate antiporters and metabotropic glutamate receptors, supporting the assumption that excitotoxicity effect in these cells is accumulative. Different cell lines differ in their responses when exposed to glutamate. In this review article the responses of PC12, SH-SY5Y, HT-22, NT-2, OLCs, C6, primary rat cortical neurons, RGC-5, and SCN2.2 cell systems are systematically collected and analyzed.

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          Most cited references 202

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          Molecular characterization of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor.

          Mitochondria play a key part in the regulation of apoptosis (cell death). Their intermembrane space contains several proteins that are liberated through the outer membrane in order to participate in the degradation phase of apoptosis. Here we report the identification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF, which is sufficient to induce apoptosis of isolated nuclei. AIF is a flavoprotein of relative molecular mass 57,000 which shares homology with the bacterial oxidoreductases; it is normally confined to mitochondria but translocates to the nucleus when apoptosis is induced. Recombinant AIF causes chromatin condensation in isolated nuclei and large-scale fragmentation of DNA. It induces purified mitochondria to release the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and caspase-9. Microinjection of AIF into the cytoplasm of intact cells induces condensation of chromatin, dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and exposure of phosphatidylserine in the plasma membrane. None of these effects is prevented by the wide-ranging caspase inhibitor known as Z-VAD.fmk. Overexpression of Bcl-2, which controls the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, prevents the release of AIF from the mitochondrion but does not affect its apoptogenic activity. These results indicate that AIF is a mitochondrial effector of apoptotic cell death.
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            Glutamate uptake.

             Niels Danbolt (2001)
            Brain tissue has a remarkable ability to accumulate glutamate. This ability is due to glutamate transporter proteins present in the plasma membranes of both glial cells and neurons. The transporter proteins represent the only (significant) mechanism for removal of glutamate from the extracellular fluid and their importance for the long-term maintenance of low and non-toxic concentrations of glutamate is now well documented. In addition to this simple, but essential glutamate removal role, the glutamate transporters appear to have more sophisticated functions in the modulation of neurotransmission. They may modify the time course of synaptic events, the extent and pattern of activation and desensitization of receptors outside the synaptic cleft and at neighboring synapses (intersynaptic cross-talk). Further, the glutamate transporters provide glutamate for synthesis of e.g. GABA, glutathione and protein, and for energy production. They also play roles in peripheral organs and tissues (e.g. bone, heart, intestine, kidneys, pancreas and placenta). Glutamate uptake appears to be modulated on virtually all possible levels, i.e. DNA transcription, mRNA splicing and degradation, protein synthesis and targeting, and actual amino acid transport activity and associated ion channel activities. A variety of soluble compounds (e.g. glutamate, cytokines and growth factors) influence glutamate transporter expression and activities. Neither the normal functioning of glutamatergic synapses nor the pathogenesis of major neurological diseases (e.g. cerebral ischemia, hypoglycemia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy and schizophrenia) as well as non-neurological diseases (e.g. osteoporosis) can be properly understood unless more is learned about these transporter proteins. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity.
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              Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor.

              A single cell clonal line which responds reversibly to nerve growth factor (NGF) has been established from a transplantable rat adrenal pheochromocytoma. This line, designated PC12, has a homogeneous and near-diploid chromosome number of 40. By 1 week's exposure to NGF, PC12 cells cease to multiply and begin to extend branching varicose processes similar to those produced by sympathetic neurons in primary cell culture. By several weeks of exposure to NGF, the PC12 processes reach 500-1000 mum in length. Removal of NGF is followed by degeneration of processes within 24 hr and by resumption of cell multiplication within 72 hr. PC12 cells grown with or without NGF contain dense core chromaffin-like granules up to 350 nm in diameter. The NGF-treated cells also contain small vesicles which accumulate in process varicosities and endings. PC12 cells synthesize and store the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. The levels (per mg of protein) of catecholamines and of the their synthetic enzymes in PC12 cells are comparable to or higher than those found in rat adrenals. NGF-treatment of PC12 cells results in no change in the levels of catecholamines or of their synthetic enzymes when expressed on a per cell basis, but does result in a 4- to 6-fold decrease in levels when expressed on a per mg of protein basis. PC12 cells do not synthesize epinephrine and cannot be induced to do so by treatment with dexamethasone. The PC12 cell line should be a useful model system for neurobiological and neurochemical studies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Cell Neurosci
                Front Cell Neurosci
                Front. Cell. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-5102
                17 March 2015
                2015
                : 9
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki Greece
                Author notes

                Edited by: Rena Li, Roskamp Institute, USA

                Reviewed by: Tibor Kristian, University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA; Shaohua Yang, University of North Texas Health Science Center, USA

                *Correspondence: Aristeidis A. Kritis, Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece kritis@ 123456med.auth.gr
                Article
                10.3389/fncel.2015.00091
                4362409
                Copyright © 2015 Kritis, Stamoula, Paniskaki and Vavilis.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 227, Pages: 18, Words: 0
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Review

                Neurosciences

                excitotoxicity, glutamate oxidative toxicity, pc12, sh-sy5y, ht-22, nt-2, rgc-5, scn2.2

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