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Endovascular and Surgical Options for Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms: Review of the Literature

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      Abstract

      Middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are common entities, and those of the bifurcation are the most frequently encountered sublocation of MCA aneurysm. MCA bifurcation (MBIF) aneurysms commonly present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), are devastating, and are often lethal. At the present time, the treatment of ruptured MBIF aneurysms entails either endovascular or open microneurosurgical methods to permanently secure the aneurysm(s). The purpose of this report is to review the current available data regarding the relative superiority of endovascular versus open microneurosurgical clipping for the treatment of ruptured middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms.

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      Most cited references 63

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      Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/american Stroke Association.

       ,  A Rabinstein,  Brian L. Hoh (2012)
      The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). A formal literature search of MEDLINE (November 1, 2006, through May 1, 2010) was performed. Data were synthesized with the use of evidence tables. Writing group members met by teleconference to discuss data-derived recommendations. The American Heart Association Stroke Council's Levels of Evidence grading algorithm was used to grade each recommendation. The guideline draft was reviewed by 7 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Leadership and Manuscript Oversight Committees. It is intended that this guideline be fully updated every 3 years. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the care of patients presenting with aSAH. The focus of the guideline was subdivided into incidence, risk factors, prevention, natural history and outcome, diagnosis, prevention of rebleeding, surgical and endovascular repair of ruptured aneurysms, systems of care, anesthetic management during repair, management of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia, management of hydrocephalus, management of seizures, and management of medical complications. aSAH is a serious medical condition in which outcome can be dramatically impacted by early, aggressive, expert care. The guidelines offer a framework for goal-directed treatment of the patient with aSAH.
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        Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history, clinical outcome, and risks of surgical and endovascular treatment.

        The management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is controversial. Investigators from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms aimed to assess the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms and to measure the risk associated with their repair. Centres in the USA, Canada, and Europe enrolled patients for prospective assessment of unruptured aneurysms. Investigators recorded the natural history in patients who did not have surgery, and assessed morbidity and mortality associated with repair of unruptured aneurysms by either open surgery or endovascular procedures. 4060 patients were assessed-1692 did not have aneurysmal repair, 1917 had open surgery, and 451 had endovascular procedures. 5-year cumulative rupture rates for patients who did not have a history of subarachnoid haemorrhage with aneurysms located in internal carotid artery, anterior communicating or anterior cerebral artery, or middle cerebral artery were 0%, 2. 6%, 14 5%, and 40% for aneurysms less than 7 mm, 7-12 mm, 13-24 mm, and 25 mm or greater, respectively, compared with rates of 2 5%, 14 5%, 18 4%, and 50%, respectively, for the same size categories involving posterior circulation and posterior communicating artery aneurysms. These rates were often equalled or exceeded by the risks associated with surgical or endovascular repair of comparable lesions. Patients' age was a strong predictor of surgical outcome, and the size and location of an aneurysm predict both surgical and endovascular outcomes. Many factors are involved in management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Site, size, and group specific risks of the natural history should be compared with site, size, and age-specific risks of repair for each patient.
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          International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion.

          Two types of treatment are being used for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: endovascular detachable-coil treatment or craniotomy and clipping. We undertook a randomised, multicentre trial to compare these treatments in patients who were suitable for either treatment because the relative safety and efficacy of these approaches had not been established. Here we present clinical outcomes 1 year after treatment. 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms, who were admitted to 42 neurosurgical centres, mainly in the UK and Europe, took part in the trial. They were randomly assigned to neurosurgical clipping (n=1070) or endovascular coiling (n=1073). The primary outcome was death or dependence at 1 year (defined by a modified Rankin scale of 3-6). Secondary outcomes included rebleeding from the treated aneurysm and risk of seizures. Long-term follow up continues. Analysis was in accordance with the randomised treatment. We report the 1-year outcomes for 1063 of 1073 patients allocated to endovascular treatment, and 1055 of 1070 patients allocated to neurosurgical treatment. 250 (23.5%) of 1063 patients allocated to endovascular treatment were dead or dependent at 1 year, compared with 326 (30.9%) of 1055 patients allocated to neurosurgery, an absolute risk reduction of 7.4% (95% CI 3.6-11.2, p=0.0001). The early survival advantage was maintained for up to 7 years and was significant (log rank p=0.03). The risk of epilepsy was substantially lower in patients allocated to endovascular treatment, but the risk of late rebleeding was higher. In patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms suitable for both treatments, endovascular coiling is more likely to result in independent survival at 1 year than neurosurgical clipping; the survival benefit continues for at least 7 years. The risk of late rebleeding is low, but is more common after endovascular coiling than after neurosurgical clipping.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Division of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Diego, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
            Author notes
            *Alexander A. Khalessi: akhalessi@ 123456ucsd.edu

            Academic Editor: Moneeb Ehtesham

            Journal
            Stroke Res Treat
            Stroke Res Treat
            SRT
            Stroke Research and Treatment
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            2090-8105
            2042-0056
            2014
            6 July 2014
            : 2014
            4109112
            10.1155/2014/315906
            Copyright © 2014 David R. Santiago-Dieppa et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Review Article

            Cardiovascular Medicine

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