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      No Tömösváry organ in flat backed millipedes (Diplopoda, Polydesmida)

      , 1 , 2 , 3

      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

      Anatomy, Histology, Micro-Computed Tomography, Morphology, Tentorium

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          Abstract

          The Tömösváry organ is a sensory structure of the head in myriapods and some other terrestrial arthropods. Due to its variable shape, size, and position in millipedes ( Diplopoda ) the Tömösváry organ is commonly used as diagnostic character in taxonomic descriptions and often included in phylogenetic analyses. For the Polydesmida , the largest millipede order, the Tömösváry organ is inconsistently stated as being either absent or present as a pear-shaped pit covered by a membrane or cuticular disc. In order to resolve this inconsistency, we investigated the morphology of the presumable Tömösváry organ in four polydesmidan species based on paraffin-histology, semi-thin sections and micro-computed tomography. Our results unambiguously favor the view that the articulation of the cephalic tentorium with the head capsule was misidentified as the Tömösváry organ in previous studies, and thus that the Tömösváry organ indeed is absent in the Polydesmida . The pear-shaped pit proved to represent the distal roundish expansion of the incisura lateralis, to which – similarly as in julidan millipedes – the tentorial transverse bar is articulated. The absence of the Tömösváry organ in the Polydesmida does not affect the topology of the interrelationships among the millipede orders retrieved in previous cladistic analyses based on morphology. As a character shared by Colobognatha and Juliformia, however, absence of a Tömösváry organ in Polydesmida favors the optimization of its presence in nematophoran millipedes as a reversal. Further studies are needed to clarify whether among chilognathan millipedes a Tömösváry organ really exists in taxa such as Stemmiulida , and whether the Tömösváry organs are homologous across millipedes.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Current status of the Myriapod class diplopoda (millipedes): taxonomic diversity and phylogeny.

          The arthropod class Diplopoda, the millipedes, ranks among the most diverse groups of terrestrial organisms, with over 12,000 species described. Although they play an important ecological role in most terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about the group's diversity, morphology, and phylogeny compared with other arthropod groups. We review diplopod natural history and discuss the historical and current literature pertaining to millipede morphology, ecology, chemical defenses, and the paleontological record of the group's ancient history. Diplopod systematics, past and present, are reviewed with a focus on taxonomy, collections, and biogeography. The phylogenetics of the class is reviewed, with particular attention on diplopod placement within the Myriapoda and emphasis on recent advances using molecular approaches to phylogenetic reconstruction. We present (a) the first combined morphological and molecular analysis of the millipede orders, and (b) a list of critically evaluated characteristics of nominal clades identifying putative apomorphies.
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            Anamorphosis in millipedes (Diplopoda)-the present state of knowledge with some developmental and phylogenetic considerations

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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              MorphoBank: phylophenomics in the “cloud”

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                28 April 2020
                : 930
                : 103-115
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Section Myriapoda, Adenauerallee 160, 53113, Bonn, Germany Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig Bonn Germany
                [2 ] Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 1, 53121, Bonn, Germany University of Bonn Bonn Germany
                [3 ] Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Dept. Information Technology and Biodiversity Informatics, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung Frankfurt am Main Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Leif Moritz ( moritz.leif@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: Z. Korsós

                Article
                48438
                10.3897/zookeys.930.48438
                7200888
                Leif Moritz, Markus Koch

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 501100001659 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Diplopoda
                Invertebrata
                Myriapoda
                Polydesmida
                Evolutionary Biology
                Phylogeny

                Animal science & Zoology

                tentorium, morphology, micro-computed tomography, histology, anatomy

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