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      Co-Localization of Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor and NPY mRNA in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Rat

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          Abstract

          Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) are small, synthetic compounds which have the potential of releasing growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary. The mechanism of action of GHS has not been fully elucidated. A specific GHS receptor (GHS-R) is expressed in the pituitary gland and in several areas of the brain including the hypothalamus. We have characterized the GHS-R-mRNA-expressing neurons with respect to co-expression of selected neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus. This was done by dual chromogenic and autoradiographic in situ hybridization with riboprobes for GHS-R mRNA and neuropeptide Y (NPY), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), somatostatin (SRIH) or GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) mRNA. In the arcuate nucleus, GHS-R mRNA was expressed in 94 ± 1% of the neurons expressing NPY, 8 ± 2% of those expressing POMC and 30 ± 6% expressing SRIH mRNA. 20–25% of the GHRH- mRNA-expressing neurons contained GHS-R mRNA, whereas the vast majority of the arcuate GHS-R-mRNA-containing cells did not contain GHRH mRNA. The finding of a significant co-expression of GHS-R and NPY mRNA in the arcuate nucleus is in accordance with the previous demonstration by Dickson et al. that c-Fos is induced in NPY neurons following GHS administration. These results indicate that GHS have other effects on neuroendocrine regulation than GH release via GHRH neurons. Stimulation of the arcuate NPY neurons via GHS-R may explain the increased appetite and the cortisol release seen after administration of some GHS compounds.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Distribution of mRNA encoding the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in brain and peripheral tissues

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            An arcuato-paraventricular and -dorsomedial hypothalamic neuropeptide Y-containing system which lacks noradrenaline in the rat.

            The origins of neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive (NPYI) fibers in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei of the rat were examined using immunohistochemistry. Destruction of the arcuate nucleus resulted in a marked decrease of NPYI fibers ipsilaterally in these nuclei, suggesting that most of NPYI fibers in these nuclei originate from NPYI neurons in the arcuate nucleus. These NPYI systems did not contain noradrenalin.
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              Systemic administration of growth hormone-releasing peptide activates hypothalamic arcuate neurons.

              The synthetic hexapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide selectively releases growth hormone in many species including man. Growth hormone-releasing peptide directly stimulates growth hormone release by an action at the level of the pituitary, at a different receptor site to that for the endogenous 44-amino acid peptide, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and when administered with growth hormone-releasing hormone has a synergistic effect. In addition to this pituitary action, we have suggested that the potent in vivo growth hormone-releasing activity of growth hormone-releasing peptide reflects a hypothalamic action and growth hormone-releasing peptide binding sites have been reported to be present in the hypothalamus. We have now found more direct evidence for a hypothalamic action of growth hormone-releasing peptide in two ways. First, we have found that a sub-population of hypothalamic neurons show strongly increased fos expression in response to systemic growth hormone-releasing peptide administration. Fos is the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, which is induced in many neuronal systems following their activation. Second, extracellular recordings from putative growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons in the arcuate nucleus showed that growth hormone-releasing peptide also stimulates the firing of neurons in this area.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1999
                November 1999
                17 November 1999
                : 70
                : 5
                : 306-316
                Affiliations
                Department of Histology, Health Care Pharmacology, Health Care Discovery, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark
                Article
                54491 Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:306–316
                10.1159/000054491
                10567856
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 40, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Functional Neuroanatomy of Hypothalamic Neurons

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