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      Immune-pineal axis - acute inflammatory responses coordinate melatonin synthesis by pinealocytes and phagocytes : Immune-pineal axis and innate immune responses

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          Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the nurses' health study.

          Melatonin shows potential oncostatic action, and light exposure during night suppresses melatonin production. There is little information, however, about the direct effect of night work on the risk of cancer. We investigated the effect of night work in breast cancer. We examined the relationship between breast cancer and working on rotating night shifts during 10 years of follow-up in 78 562 women from the Nurses' Health Study. Information was ascertained in 1988 about the total number of years during which the nurses had worked rotating night shifts with at least three nights per month. From June 1988 through May 1998, we documented 2441 incident breast cancer cases. Logistic regression models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for confounding variables and breast cancer risk factors. All statistical tests were two-sided. We observed a moderate increase in breast cancer risk among the women who worked 1-14 years or 15-29 years on rotating night shifts (multivariate adjusted RR = 1.08 [95% CI = 0.99 to 1.18] and RR = 1.08 [95% CI = 0.90 to 1.30], respectively). The risk was further increased among women who worked 30 or more years on the night shift (RR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.78). The test for trend was statistically significant (P =.02). Women who work on rotating night shifts with at least three nights per month, in addition to days and evenings in that month, appear to have a moderately increased risk of breast cancer after extended periods of working rotating night shifts.
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            Generation of the melatonin endocrine message in mammals: a review of the complex regulation of melatonin synthesis by norepinephrine, peptides, and other pineal transmitters.

            Melatonin, the major hormone produced by the pineal gland, displays characteristic daily and seasonal patterns of secretion. These robust and predictable rhythms in circulating melatonin are strong synchronizers for the expression of numerous physiological processes in photoperiodic species. In mammals, the nighttime production of melatonin is mainly driven by the circadian clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which controls the release of norepinephrine from the dense pineal sympathetic afferents. The pivotal role of norepinephrine in the nocturnal stimulation of melatonin synthesis has been extensively dissected at the cellular and molecular levels. Besides the noradrenergic input, the presence of numerous other transmitters originating from various sources has been reported in the pineal gland. Many of these are neuropeptides and appear to contribute to the regulation of melatonin synthesis by modulating the effects of norepinephrine on pineal biochemistry. The aim of this review is firstly to update our knowledge of the cellular and molecular events underlying the noradrenergic control of melatonin synthesis; and secondly to gather together early and recent data on the effects of the nonadrenergic transmitters on modulation of melatonin synthesis. This information reveals the variety of inputs that can be integrated by the pineal gland; what elements are crucial to deliver the very precise timing information to the organism. This also clarifies the role of these various inputs in the seasonal variation of melatonin synthesis and their subsequent physiological function.
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              THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2017/18: Catalytic receptors

              The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2017/18 provides concise overviews of the key properties of nearly 1800 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide represents approximately 400 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point‐in‐time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.13876/full. Catalytic receptors are one of the eight major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein‐coupled receptors, ligand‐gated ion channels, voltage‐gated ion channels, other ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid‐2017, and supersedes data presented in the 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature Committee of the Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC‐IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                British Journal of Pharmacology
                British Journal of Pharmacology
                Wiley
                00071188
                August 2018
                August 2018
                December 15 2017
                : 175
                : 16
                : 3239-3250
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Chronopharmacology and Laboratory of Neuroimmunomodulation - Department of Physiology, Institute of Bioscience; University of São Paulo; São Paulo Brazil
                Article
                10.1111/bph.14083
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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