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      Marine Morbilliviruses: Diversity and Interaction with Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecules

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          Epidemiological reports of phocine distemper virus (PDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) have accumulated since their discovery nearly 30 years ago. In this review, we focus on the interaction between these marine morbilliviruses and their major cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). The three-dimensional crystal structure and homology models of SLAMs have demonstrated that 35 residues are important for binding to the morbillivirus hemagglutinin (H) protein and contribute to viral tropism. These 35 residues are essentially conserved among pinnipeds and highly conserved among the Caniformia, suggesting that PDV can infect these animals, but are less conserved among cetaceans. Because CeMV can infect various cetacean species, including toothed and baleen whales, the CeMV-H protein is postulated to have broader specificity to accommodate more divergent SLAM interfaces and may enable the virus to infect seals. In silico analysis of viral H protein and SLAM indicates that each residue of the H protein interacts with multiple residues of SLAM and vice versa. The integration of epidemiological, virological, structural, and computational studies should provide deeper insight into host specificity and switching of marine morbilliviruses.

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from free of charge.
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            The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

            A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
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              Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics.

              Molecular phylogenetic studies have resolved placental mammals into four major groups, but have not established the full hierarchy of interordinal relationships, including the position of the root. The latter is critical for understanding the early biogeographic history of placentals. We investigated placental phylogeny using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods and a 16.4-kilobase molecular data set. Interordinal relationships are almost entirely resolved. The basal split is between Afrotheria and other placentals, at about 103 million years, and may be accounted for by the separation of South America and Africa in the Cretaceous. Crown-group Eutheria may have their most recent common ancestry in the Southern Hemisphere (Gondwana).

                Author and article information

                03 July 2019
                July 2019
                : 11
                : 7
                [1 ]Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, 1583, Iiyama, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0297, Japan
                [2 ]School of Marine Biosciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1, Kitazato, Minami, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1, Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: cie20910@ ; Tel.: +81-45-568-4659
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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