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      Pseudonannolene canastra sp. nov. (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida) – a new troglobitic millipede from the southwestern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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      Subterranean Biology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Pseudonannolene is a neotropical genus of millipedes distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia. Generally, species of Pseudonannolene are considered troglophilic, i.e., they can establish a source population in both subterranean and superficial habitats. Among the 60 species known, 49 are found in Brazil; out of these, 25 occur in caves but only three are considered troglobitic (source population exclusively subterranean). This study aims to describe the fourth troglobitic species of Pseudonannolene from Brazil, and the first one from the region of Serra da Canastra, in the southeastern part of Brazil.

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          Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary

          Background Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa. Results We provide a glossary of invertebrate neuroanatomical terms with a precise and consistent terminology, taxon-independent and free of homology assumptions. This terminology is intended to form a basis for new morphological descriptions. A total of 47 terms are defined. Each entry consists of a definition, discouraged terms, and a background/comment section. Conclusions The use of our revised neuroanatomical terminology in any new descriptions of the anatomy of invertebrate nervous systems will improve the comparability of this organ system and its substructures between the various taxa, and finally even lead to better and more robust homology hypotheses.
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            Towards a biologically meaningful classification of subterranean organisms: a critical analysis of the Schiner-Racovitza system from a historical perspective, difficulties of its application and implications for conservation

            Subterranean organisms always attracted the attention of humans using caves with various purposes, due to the strange appearance of several among them and life in an environment considered extreme. According to a classification based on the evolutionary and ecological relationships of these organisms with subterranean habitats, first proposed by Schiner in 1854 and emended by Racovitza in 1907, three categories have been recognized: troglobites, troglophles and trogloxenes. The Schiner-Racovitza system has been discussed, criticized, emended, the categories have been redefined, subdivided, original meanings have changed, but it is used until now. Herein we analyze in a conceptual framework the main ecological classifications of subterranean organisms, from Schiner to Trajano, in 2012, so far the last author to introduce a relevant conceptual change on the categories definitions, incorporating the source-sink population model. Conceptual inconsistencies are pointed, especially with regards to the generally ill-defined trogloxene category, and the correspondence between categories according to the original sense and in alternative classifications is discussed. Practical criteria for distinction between these categories and difficulties for their application are presented. The importance of rightly classifying subterranean populations according to the Schiner-Racovitza system for conservation of these fragile and mostly threatened habitats is discussed.
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              Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment

              Abstract The subterranean environment harbors species that are not capable of establishing populations in the epigean environment, i.e., the obligatory subterranean species. These organisms live in a unique selective regime in permanent darkness and usually low food availability, high air humidity in terrestrial habitats, and low temperature range allied to other unique conditions related to lithologies and past climatic influences. The pressure to increase Brazil’s economic growth relies on agricultural/pastoral industries and exporting of raw materials such as iron, limestone, ethanol, soybean, cotton, and meat, as well as huge reservoir constructions to generate electricity. Mining (even on a small scale), agricultural expansion, and hydroelectric projects are extremely harmful to subterranean biodiversity, via the modification and even destruction of hypogean habitats. The Brazilian subterranean species were analyzed with respect to their distributions, presence on the IUCN Red List, and current and potential threats to hypogean habitats. A map and three lists are presented, one with the described obligatory subterranean species, one with undescribed taxa, and one with the current and potential threats to the hypogean environment. To date, 150 obligatory subterranean species have been recorded in Brazil, plus at least 156 undescribed troglomorphic taxa, totaling 306 Brazilian troglobites/obligatory cave fauna. We also analyzed the current and potential cave threats and the conservation actions that are underway to attempt to compensate for loss of these habitats. In according to the Brazilian legislation (Decree 6640) only caves of maximum relevance are fully protected. One strategy to protect the subterranean fauna of Brazil is the inclusion of these species in the IUCN Red List (one of attributes that determines maximum relevance for caves); however, one of the IUCN assumptions is that the taxa must be formally described. It is clear that the description and proposed protection of Brazilian subterranean biodiversity depends on more systematics studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Subterranean Biology
                SB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2615
                1768-1448
                June 26 2020
                June 26 2020
                : 35
                : 33-47
                Article
                10.3897/subtbiol.35.51183
                46ec6a11-96f5-430b-bcf1-075f097c3a89
                © 2020

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