Blog
About

1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Arterial Stiffness Increases Over Time in Relation to Lung Diffusion Capacity: A Longitudinal Observation Study in COPD

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Cardiovascular events are, after cancer, the most common cause of death in COPD patients. Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Several cross-sectional studies have confirmed increased arterial stiffness in patients with COPD. Various mechanisms in the development of arterial stiffness in COPD such as reduced lung function or systemic inflammation have been proposed. However, clinical predictors of arterial stiffness that had been reported in cross-sectional studies have not yet been confirmed in a longitudinal setting. We have assessed the course of augmentation index (AIx) - a measure of systemic arterial stiffness - and possible predictors in a cohort of COPD patients over a period of up to 7 years.

          Methods

          COPD patients underwent annual AIx measurement by applanation tonometry for a maximum duration of 7 years. Additionally, we performed annual assessments of lung function, blood gases, systemic inflammation, serum lipids and blood pressure. Associations between the course of AIx and potential predictors were investigated through a mixed effect model.

          Results

          Seventy-six patients (mean (SD) age 62.4 (7.1), male 67%) were included. The AIx showed a significant annual increase of 0.91% (95% CI 0.21/1.60) adjusted for baseline. The change in diffusion capacity (DLco), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP) was independently associated with the increasing evolution of AIx (Coef. - 0.10, p<0.001, Coef. 1.37, p=0.003, and Coef. 0.07, p=0.033, respectively).

          Conclusion

          This study demonstrated a meaningful increase in arterial stiffness in COPD over time. A greater annual increase in arterial stiffness was associated with the severity of emphysema (measured by DLco), systemic inflammation, and dyslipidaemia.

          Clinical Trial Registration

          www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01527773.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 30

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Prospective evaluation of a method for estimating ascending aortic pressure from the radial artery pressure waveform.

          Pressure wave reflection in the upper limb causes amplification of the arterial pulse so that radial systolic and pulse pressures are greater than in the ascending aorta. Wave transmission properties in the upper limbs (in contrast to the descending aorta and lower limbs) change little with age, disease, and drug therapy in adult humans. Such consistency has led to use of a generalized transfer function to synthesize the ascending aortic pressure pulse from the radial pulse. Validity of this approach was tested for estimation of aortic systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean pressures from the radial pressure waveform. Ascending aortic and radial pressure waveforms were recorded simultaneously at cardiac surgery, before initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, with matched, fluid-filled manometer systems in 62 patients under control conditions and during nitroglycerin infusion. Aortic pressure pulse waves, generated from the radial pulse, showed agreement with the measured aortic pulse waves with respect to systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean pressures, with mean differences <1 mm Hg. Control differences in Bland-Altman plots for mean+/-SD in mm Hg were systolic, 0.0+/-4.4; diastolic, 0.6+/-1.7; pulse, -0.7+/-4.2; and mean pressure, -0.5+/-2.0. For nitroglycerin infusion, differences respectively were systolic, -0.2+/-4.3; diastolic, 0.6+/-1.7; pulse, -0.8+/-4.1; and mean pressure, -0.4+/-1.8. Differences were within specified limits of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation SP10 criteria. In contrast, differences between recorded radial and aortic systolic and pulse pressures were well outside the criteria (respectively, 15.7+/-8.4 and 16.3+/-8.5 for control and 14.5+/-7.3 and 15.1+/-7.3 mm Hg for nitroglycerin). Use of a generalized transfer function to synthesize radial artery pressure waveforms can provide substantially equivalent values of aortic systolic, pulse, mean, and diastolic pressures.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The influence of heart rate on augmentation index and central arterial pressure in humans.

            Arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk. Augmentation index (AIx) is a measure of systemic arterial stiffness derived from the ascending aortic pressure waveform. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of heart rate on AIx. We elected to use cardiac pacing rather than chronotropic drugs to minimize confounding effects on the systemic circulation and myocardial contractility. Twenty-two subjects (13 male) with a mean age of 63 years and permanent cardiac pacemakers in situ were studied. Pulse wave analysis was used to determine central arterial pressure waveforms, non-invasively, during incremental pacing (from 60 to 110 beats min-1), from which AIx and central blood pressure were calculated. Peripheral blood pressure was recorded non-invasively from the brachial artery. There was a significant, inverse, linear relationship between AIx and heart rate (r = -0.76; P < 0.001). For a 10 beats min-1 increment, AIx fell by around 4 %. Ejection duration and heart rate were also inversely related (r = -0. 51; P < 0.001). Peripheral systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased significantly during incremental pacing. Although central diastolic pressure increased significantly with pacing, central systolic pressure did not. There was a significant increase in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure (P < 0.001), which was accounted for by the observed change in central pressure augmentation. These results demonstrate an inverse, linear relationship between AIx and heart rate. This is likely to be due to alterations in the timing of the reflected pressure wave, produced by changes in the absolute duration of systole. Consideration of wave reflection and aortic pressure augmentation may explain the lack of rise in central systolic pressure during incremental pacing despite an increase in peripheral pressure.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Physical activity in patients with COPD.

              The present study aimed to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to: 1) identify the disease stage at which physical activity becomes limited; 2) investigate the relationship of clinical characteristics with physical activity; 3) evaluate the predictive power of clinical characteristics identifying very inactive patients; and 4) analyse the reliability of physical activity measurements. In total, 163 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I-IV; BODE (body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity) index score 0-10) and 29 patients with chronic bronchitis (normal spirometry; former GOLD stage 0) wore activity monitors that recorded steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity, and physical activity levels for 5 days (3 weekdays plus Saturday and Sunday). Compared with patients with chronic bronchitis, steps per day, minutes of at least moderate activity and physical activity levels were reduced from GOLD stage II/BODE score 1, GOLD stage III/BODE score 3/4 and from GOLD stage III/BODE score 1, respectively. Reliability of physical activity measurements improved with the number of measured days and with higher GOLD stages. Moderate relationships were observed between clinical characteristics and physical activity. GOLD stages III and IV best predicted very inactive patients. Physical activity is reduced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II/ body mass index, airway obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity score 1. Clinical characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease only incompletely reflect their physical activity.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                23 January 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 177-187
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pulmonary Division, University Hospital of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland
                [2 ]Centre for Interdisciplinary Sleep Research, University of Zurich , Zurich, Switzerland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Malcolm Kohler Pulmonary Division, University Hospital Zurich , Raemistrasse 100, Zurich8091, Switzerland Email malcolm.kohler@usz.ch
                Article
                234882
                10.2147/COPD.S234882
                6986246
                32158204
                © 2020 Roeder et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 6, References: 41, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article