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      Hyaluronan, a Crucial Regulator of Inflammation

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          Abstract

          Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a key role in regulating inflammation. Inflammation is associated with accumulation and turnover of HA polymers by multiple cell types. Increasingly through the years, HA has become recognized as an active participant in inflammatory, angiogenic, fibrotic, and cancer promoting processes. HA and its binding proteins regulate the expression of inflammatory genes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and can attenuate the course of inflammation, providing protection against tissue damage. A growing body of evidence suggests the cell responses are HA molecular weight dependent. HA fragments generated by multiple mechanisms throughout the course of inflammatory pathologies, elicit cellular responses distinct from intact HA. This review focuses on the role of HA in the promotion and resolution of inflammation.

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          Most cited references 189

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          Carcinoma-produced factors activate myeloid cells through TLR2 to stimulate metastasis.

          Metastatic progression depends on genetic alterations intrinsic to cancer cells as well as the inflammatory microenvironment of advanced tumours. To understand how cancer cells affect the inflammatory microenvironment, we conducted a biochemical screen for macrophage-activating factors secreted by metastatic carcinomas. Here we show that, among the cell lines screened, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) were the most potent macrophage activators leading to production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) through activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members TLR2 and TLR6. Both TNF-alpha and TLR2 were found to be required for LLC metastasis. Biochemical purification of LLC-conditioned medium (LCM) led to identification of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan versican, which is upregulated in many human tumours including lung cancer, as a macrophage activator that acts through TLR2 and its co-receptors TLR6 and CD14. By activating TLR2:TLR6 complexes and inducing TNF-alpha secretion by myeloid cells, versican strongly enhances LLC metastatic growth. These results explain how advanced cancer cells usurp components of the host innate immune system, including bone-marrow-derived myeloid progenitors, to generate an inflammatory microenvironment hospitable for metastatic growth.
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            Oligosaccharides of Hyaluronan Activate Dendritic Cells via Toll-like Receptor 4

            Low molecular weight fragmentation products of the polysaccharide of Hyaluronic acid (sHA) produced during inflammation have been shown to be potent activators of immunocompetent cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Here we report that sHA induces maturation of DCs via the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, a receptor complex associated with innate immunity and host defense against bacterial infection. Bone marrow–derived DCs from C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice carrying mutant TLR-4 alleles were nonresponsive to sHA-induced phenotypic and functional maturation. Conversely, DCs from TLR-2–deficient mice were still susceptible to sHA. In accordance, addition of an anti–TLR-4 mAb to human monocyte–derived DCs blocked sHA-induced tumor necrosis factor α production. Western blot analysis revealed that sHA treatment resulted in distinct phosphorylation of p38/p42/44 MAP-kinases and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, all components of the TLR-4 signaling pathway. Blockade of this pathway by specific inhibitors completely abrogated the sHA-induced DC maturation. Finally, intravenous injection of sHA-induced DC emigration from the skin and their phenotypic and functional maturation in the spleen, again depending on the expression of TLR-4. In conclusion, this is the first report that polysaccharide degradation products of the extracellular matrix produced during inflammation might serve as an endogenous ligand for the TLR-4 complex on DCs.
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              Hyaluronidases: their genomics, structures, and mechanisms of action.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                11 March 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation , Cleveland, OH, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Deirdre R. Coombe, Curtin University, Australia

                Reviewed by: Fulvio D’Acquisto, Queen Mary University of London, UK; Anthony John Day, University of Manchester, UK

                *Correspondence: Carol A. de la Motte, Department of Pathobiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA e-mail: delamoc@ 123456ccf.org

                This article was submitted to Inflammation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology.

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2014.00101
                3949149
                24653726
                Copyright © 2014 Petrey and de la Motte.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 205, Pages: 13, Words: 13588
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review Article

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