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      Sex- and stage-related sensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni to in vivo and in vitro praziquantel treatment.

      International Journal for Parasitology
      Animals, Anthelmintics, therapeutic use, Biomphalaria, parasitology, Female, Gender Identity, Life Cycle Stages, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred Strains, Parasitic Sensitivity Tests, Praziquantel, Puerto Rico, Schistosoma mansoni, drug effects, physiology, Schistosomiasis, drug therapy

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          The efficacy of praziquantel against a Puerto Rican strain of Schistosoma mansoni was assessed using both in vivo and in vitro approach. The drug effective dose (50%) in the infected mouse model was about 30 times higher when determined against 28-day-old infections than against 7-week-old parasites. Single-sex female infections were also largely refractory to treatment and single-sex male infections moderately refractory, in comparison with bisexual infections. The in vitro approach consisted of overnight exposure of parasite cultures to various drug concentrations, followed by several days of culture in drug-free medium. In vitro results confirmed in vivo data and allowed for the observation of schistosome morphological phenomena after praziquantel exposure. Early worm contraction was observed in all cases, even after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of praziquantel or upon exposure of the largely refractory 28-day-old schistosomes. In these instances, however, worms resumed movements and normal shape upon drug removal and were able to survive. The inference of these observations on the clinical use of praziquantel and on its mechanism of action is discussed.

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