+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Sinapultide-Loaded Microbubbles Combined with Ultrasound to Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Pulmonary surfactants (eg, sinapultide) are widely used for the treatment of lung injury diseases; however, they generally induce poor therapeutic efficacy in clinics. In this study, sinapultide-loaded microbubbles (MBs) were prepared and combined with ultrasound (US) treatment as a new strategy for improved treatment of lung injury diseases.


          The combination treatment strategy of MBs combined with ultrasound was tested in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of alveolar epithelial cells (AT II) and acute lung injury. Firstly, cytotoxicity, cytokines, and protein levels in LPS-mediated AT II cells were assessed. Secondly, the pathological morphology of lung tissue, the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, cytokines, and protein levels in LPS-mediated acute lung injury mice after treatment with the MBs were evaluated. Moreover, histology examination of the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of mice treated with the MBs was performed to initially evaluate the safety of the sinapultide-loaded MBs.


          Sinapultide-loaded MBs in combination with ultrasound treatment significantly reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in AT II cells. Furthermore, the pathological morphology of lung tissue, the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and SP-A expression level of mice treated with MBs and ultrasound were significantly improved compared to those of non-treated mice. In addition, the histology of the examined organs showed that the MBs had a good safety profile.


          Sinapultide-loaded MBs combined with ultrasonic treatment may be a new therapeutic option for lung injury diseases in the clinic.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 35

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a clinical review.

          Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are well defined and readily recognised clinical disorders caused by many clinical insults to the lung or because of predispositions to lung injury. That this process is common in intensive care is well established. The mainstay of treatment for this disorder is provision of excellent supportive care since these patients are critically ill and frequently have coexisting conditions including sepsis and multiple organ failure. Refinements in ventilator and fluid management supported by data from prospective randomised trials have increased the methods available to effectively manage this disorder.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D: structure, function and receptors.

            Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, are collagen-containing C-type (calcium dependent) lectins called collectins, which contribute significantly to surfactant homeostasis and pulmonary immunity. These highly versatile innate immune molecules are involved in a range of immune functions including viral neutralization, clearance of bacteria, fungi and apoptotic and necrotic cells, down regulation of allergic reaction and resolution of inflammation. Their basic structures include a triple-helical collagen region and a C-terminal homotrimeric lectin or carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). The trimeric CRDs can recognize carbohydrate or charge patterns on microbes, allergens and dying cells, while the collagen region can interact with receptor molecules present on a variety of immune cells in order to initiate clearance mechanisms. Studies involving gene knock-out mice, murine models of lung hypersensitivity and infection, and functional characterization of cell surface receptors have revealed the diverse roles of SP-A and SP-D in the control of lung inflammation. A recently proposed model based on studies with the calreticulin-CD91 complex as a receptor for SP-A and SP-D has suggested an anti-inflammatory role for SP-A and SP-D in naïve lungs which would help minimise the potential damage that continual low level exposure to pathogens, allergens and apoptosis can cause. However, when the lungs are overwhelmed with exogenous insults, SP-A and SP-D can assume pro-inflammatory roles in order to complement pulmonary innate and adaptive immunity. This review is an update on the structural and functional aspects of SP-A and SP-D, with emphasis on their roles in controlling pulmonary infection, allergy and inflammation. We also try to put in perspective the controversial subject of the candidate receptor molecules for SP-A and SP-D.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The value of the lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model in respiratory medicine.

              Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a syndrome characterized by pulmonary edema and acute inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component in Gram-negative bacteria, has been used to induce ALI/ARDS. LPS-induced animal models highlight ways to explore mechanisms of multiple diseases and provide useful information on the discovery of novel biomarkers and drug targets. However, each model has its own merits and drawbacks. The goal of this article is to summarize and evaluate the results of experimental findings in LPS-induced ALI/ARDS, and the possible mechanisms and treatments elucidated. Advantages and disadvantages of such models in pulmonary research and new directions for future investigations are also discussed.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                22 December 2020
                : 14
                : 5611-5622
                [1 ]School of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, West Anhui University , Lu’an 237012, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Anhui Engineering Laboratory for Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources , Lu’an 237012, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]School of Biomedical Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University , Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Key Laboratory of Biomedical Functional Materials, China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Deli XiaoDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing210009, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 25 86185160 Email xiao49562001@163.com
                Bangxin HanSchool of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, West Anhui University , Lu’an237012, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 564 3305073 Email hanbx1978@sina.com
                © 2020 Liu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 12
                Original Research


                Comment on this article