A series of 38 children with ocular herpes simplex infection is reported. The follow-up periods ranged between 1 and 10 years after the first ocular herpetic involvement. The primary ocular infection occurred in most cases between 2 and 6 years of age, with a similar rate in males and females. The number of recurrences increased with the duration of the follow-up period: during the first 2 years, recurrences developed in 50% of cases and after 2 years, all the children had new herpetic ocular attacks. Idoxuridine treatment failures were found in 11 cases of herpetic superficial keratitis. Ocular herpes simplex in children is a major cause of visual loss and disability. After a follow-up period of 5 years, 75% of patients with herpetic keratitis had a visual acuity of 5/10 or less.