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      Re-engineering the post-myocardial infarction medicines optimisation pathway: a retrospective analysis of a joint consultant pharmacist and cardiologist clinic model

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          Inadequate medicines optimisation and adherence are significant problems among patients taking secondary prevention medications following myocardial infarction (MI). A novel joint consultant cardiology pharmacist and cardiologist medicines optimisation clinic was initiated for patients recently discharged following MI.


          Patients completed a locally developed tool, the ‘My Experience of Taking Medicines’ questionnaire, designed to allow sharing of barriers to adherence with medications. They then attended a clinic with the consultant pharmacist or cardiologist (or both). Secondary prevention medicines needs and barriers to adherence were identified and discussed, and an action plan developed. The data provided are from a retrospective review of 270 post-MI patients attending the service between October 2015 and December 2016.


          Mean age was 67.3 years and 67.8% were male. The mean time from discharge to first outpatient clinic attendance was reduced by 56.1% (49.4 days vs 88 days before the service began). More than 95% of patient without planned non-pharmacological intervention postdischarge did not need a cardiologist’s input. Levels of medicines optimisation were improved substantially after attendance: patients receiving a recommended angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker dose increased from 16.3% to 73.9% (p<0.001); patients receiving a recommended beta-blocker dose increased from 6.2% to 46.1% (p<0.001). Patient concerns about their medications were significantly decreased (all p<0.001). Rates of non-adherence fell by 42.6%–70.8% at 3–6 months post-clinic. Readmission rates also declined after the service opened.


          A medicines optimisation and patient adherence strategy based on a joint consultant cardiology pharmacist and cardiologist clinic can improve both adherence and outcomes post-MI.

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          Most cited references 5

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          2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.

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            Untangling the relationship between medication adherence and post-myocardial infarction outcomes: medication adherence and clinical outcomes.

            Patients who adhere to medications experience better outcomes than their nonadherent counterparts. However, these observations may be confounded by patient behaviors. The level of adherence necessary for patients to derive benefit and whether adherence to all agents is important for diseases that require multiple drugs remain unclear. This study quantifies the relationship between medication adherence and post-myocardial infarction (MI) adverse coronary events.
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              Adherence to statins, subsequent healthcare costs, and cardiovascular hospitalizations.

              Statins are the primary agents used to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although adherence to statins improves the clinical outcomes, the affect of statin adherence on healthcare costs has not been well studied. To examine the relation among statin adherence, subsequent hospitalizations, and healthcare costs, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 381,422 patients, aged 18 to 61 years, using an integrated pharmacy and medical claims database. We measured adherence using the medication possession ratio (MPR) for 12 months and the healthcare costs and cardiovascular disease-related hospitalizations during the subsequent 18 months. Of those studied, 258,013 (67.6%) were adherent (MPR ≥80%), 65,795 (17.3%) had an MPR of 60% to 79%, and 57,614 (15.1%) had an MPR of 60%, the adjusted total healthcare costs were lowest for the MPR 90% to 100% group and significantly greater statistically (p <0.001) for each lower level of adherence. Compared to the statin-adherent patients, cardiovascular disease-related hospitalizations were more likely for the patients with an MPR of 60% to 79% (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.16) and an MPR of 0% to 59% (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.31). In conclusion, statin adherence is associated with reductions in subsequent total healthcare costs and cardiovascular disease-related hospitalizations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Open Heart
                Open Heart
                Open Heart
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                10 December 2018
                : 5
                : 2
                [1 ] departmentMedicines Management & Pharmacy Services , Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust , Leeds, UK
                [2 ] departmentCardiology Department , Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust , Leeds, UK
                [3 ] departmentLeeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine , Universityof Leeds , Leeds, UK
                [4 ] departmentNHS Relations , AstraZeneca, Horizon Place, Capability Green , Luton, UK
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Rani Khatib; r.khatib@
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

                Funded by: FundRef, AstraZeneca;
                Award ID: Initial proof of concept was partially funded
                Coronary Artery Disease
                Original research article
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