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      Activation of the IκB Kinase Complex by TRAF6 Requires a Dimeric Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Complex and a Unique Polyubiquitin Chain

      , , , , , , , ,

      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          TRAF6 is a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. We have purified a heterodimeric protein complex that links TRAF6 to IKK activation. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis reveals that this complex is composed of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and the Ubc-like protein Uev1A. We find that TRAF6, a RING domain protein, functions together with Ubc13/Uev1A to catalyze the synthesis of unique polyubiquitin chains linked through lysine-63 (K63) of ubiquitin. Blockade of this polyubiquitin chain synthesis, but not inhibition of the proteasome, prevents the activation of IKK by TRAF6. These results unveil a new regulatory function for ubiquitin, in which IKK is activated through the assembly of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains.

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          Most cited references 29

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          MAP3K-related kinase involved in NF-kappaB induction by TNF, CD95 and IL-1.

          Several members of the tumour-necrosis/nerve-growth factor (TNF/NGF) receptor family activate the transcription factor NF-kappaB through a common adaptor protein, Traf2 (refs 1-5), whereas the interleukin 1 type-I receptor activates NF-kappaB independently of Traf2 (ref. 4). We have now cloned a new protein kinase, NIK, which binds to Traf2 and stimulates NF-kappaB activity. This kinase shares sequence similarity with several MAPKK kinases. Expression in cells of kinase-deficient NIK mutants fails to stimulate NF-kappaB and blocks its induction by TNF, by either of the two TNF receptors or by the receptor CD95 (Fas/Apo-1), and by TRADD, RIP and MORT1/FADD, which are adaptor proteins that bind to these receptors. It also blocked NF-kappaB induction by interleukin-1. Our findings indicate that NIK participates in an NF-kappaB-inducing signalling cascade common to receptors of the TNF/NGF family and to the interleukin-1 type-I receptor.
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            Signal-induced site-specific phosphorylation targets I kappa B alpha to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

            The transcription factor NF-kappa B is sequestered in the cytoplasm by the inhibitor protein I kappa B alpha. Extracellular inducers of NF-kappa B activate signal transduction pathways that result in the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I kappa B alpha. At present, the link between phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha and its degradation is not understood. In this report we provide evidence that phosphorylation of serine residues 32 and 36 of I kappa B alpha targets the protein to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. I kappa B alpha is ubiquitinated in vivo and in vitro following phosphorylation, and mutations that abolish phosphorylation and degradation of I kappa B alpha in vivo prevent ubiquitination in vitro. Ubiquitinated I kappa B alpha remains associated with NF-kappa B, and the bound I kappa B alpha is degraded by the 26S proteasome. Thus, ubiquitination provides a mechanistic link between phosphorylation and degradation of I kappa B alpha.
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              TRAF6 is a signal transducer for interleukin-1.

              Many cytokines signal through different cell-surface receptors to activate the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Members of the TRAF protein family have been implicated in the activation of NF-kappaB by the tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily. Here we report the identification of a new TRAF family member, designated TRAF6. When overexpressed in human 293 cells, TRAF6 activates NF-kappaB. A dominant-negative mutant of TRAF6 inhibits NF-kappaB activation signalled by interleukin-1 (IL-1) but not by TNF. IL-1 treatment of 293 cells induces the association of TRAF6 with IRAK, a serine/threonine kinase that is rapidly recruited to the IL-1 receptor after IL-1 induction. These findings indicate that TRAF proteins may function as signal transducers for distinct receptor families and that TRAF6 participates in IL-1 signalling.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                October 2000
                October 2000
                : 103
                : 2
                : 351-361
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00126-4
                11057907
                © 2000

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