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      Association of Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism with Blood Pressure and Lipid Values in Mexican Hypertensive Individuals

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          Abstract

          Hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibit an important clinical relationship because an increase in blood lipids yields an increase in blood pressure (BP). We analyzed the associations of seven polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid metabolism ( APOA5 rs3135506, APOB rs1042031, FABP2 rs1799883, LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs1800588, LPL rs328, and MTTP rs1800591) with blood pressure and lipid values in Mexican hypertensive (HT) patients. A total of 160 HT patients and 160 normotensive individuals were included. Genotyping was performed through PCR-RFLP, PCR-AIRS, and sequencing. The results showed significant associations in the HT group and HT subgroups classified as normolipemic and hyperlipemic. The alleles FABP2 p.55T, LIPC −514T, and MTTP −493T were associated with elevated systolic BP. Five alleles were associated with lipids. LPL p.474X and FABP2 p.55T were associated with decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C, respectively; APOA5 p.19W with increased HDL-C; APOA5 p.19W and FABP2 p.55T with increased triglycerides; and APOB p.4181K and LDLR c.1959T with decreased triglycerides. The APOB p.E4181K polymorphism increases the risk for HT (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.17–2.93; P = 0.001) under the dominant model. These findings indicate that polymorphisms of lipid metabolism genes modify systolic BP and lipid levels and may be important in the development of essential hypertension and dyslipidemia in Mexican HT patients.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Hypertension in Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

          To describe the prevalence of hypertension among Mexican adults, and to compare to that observed among Mexican-Americans living in the US. The primary data source came from adults (>20 years) sampled (n=33366) in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Hypertension was defined when systolic blood pressure was >or=140 and/or diastolic was >or= 90 or patients previously diagnosed. A total of 43.2% of participants were classified as having hypertension. We found a positive statistically significant association (p<0.05) between hypertension and BMI, abdominal obesity, previous diagnosis of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Subjects with hypertension had a significantly higher odd of having a history of diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. Hypertension had a higher prevalence in Mexico than among Mexican-Americans living in the US. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in Mexico. In the last six years in Mexico, a substantial increase (25%) has been observed in contrast to the reduction seen among Mexican-Americans (-15%).
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            The -514 C->T hepatic lipase promoter region polymorphism and plasma lipids: a meta-analysis.

            Investigations of the -514 C-->T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the hepatic lipase (HL) gene promoter region (LIPC) have yielded contradictory results regarding its association with changes in plasma lipids. The current study is a meta-analysis of 25 publications on this SNP, comprising over 24,000 individuals, and its relationship with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides, and HL activity. Significant decreases were observed in HL activity for both the CT and TT genotypes compared with the CC genotype [weighted mean difference (WMD), -5.83 mmol/liter.h (95% confidence interval, -8.48, -3.17) and -11.05 mmol/liter.h (95% confidence interval, -14.74, -7.36), respectively]. Moreover, significant increases in HDL were found; the CT to CC comparison showed an increase in WMD of 0.04 mmol/liter (95% confidence interval, 0.02, 0.05) mmol/liter, and the increase in the TT vs. CC difference was WMD of 0.09 mmol/liter (95% confidence interval, 0.07, 0.12). These changes appear to be stepwise, implying an allele dosage effect. All P values for these associations were less than 0.001. This meta-analysis demonstrates the importance of the -514C-->T SNP in determining HL activity and plasma HDL concentration and helps quantify the role that hepatic lipase plays in the metabolism of HDL.
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              Prevalence of dyslipidemias in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

              To describe the prevalence of lipid abnormalities found in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006). Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9- to 12-hour fast. Median lipid concentrations were: cholesterol 198.5 mg/dl, triglycerides 139.6 mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol 39.0 mg/dl, non-HDL-cholesterol 159.5 mg/dl and LDL-cholesterol 131.5 mg/dl. The most frequent abnormality was HDL-cholesterol below 40 mg/dl with a prevalence of 60.5% (95%CI 58.2-62.8%). Hypercholesterolemia (> 200 mg/dl) had a frequency of abnormality of 43.6% (95%CI 41.4-46.0%). Only 8.6% of the hypercholesterolemic subjects knew their diagnosis. Hypertriglyceridemia (>or= 150 mg/dl) was observed in 31.5% (IC 95% 29.3-33.9%) of the population. The ENSANUT 2006 data confirm that the prevalence of hypoalphalipoproteinemia and other forms of dyslipidemia in Mexican adults is very high.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Dis Markers
                Dis. Markers
                DM
                Disease Markers
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                0278-0240
                1875-8630
                2014
                21 December 2014
                : 2014
                Affiliations
                1División de Genética, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sierra Mojada No. 800, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                2Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada No. 950, Colonia Independencia, 44348 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                3Instituto de Genética Humana “Enrique Corona Rivera”, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada No. 950, Colonia Independencia, 44348 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                4Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud del Adolescente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Avenida Tonalá 121, 45400 Tonalá, JAL, Mexico
                5División de Medicina Molecular, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sierra Mojada No. 800, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
                Author notes
                *María Teresa Magaña-Torres: maganamt@ 123456yahoo.com.mx

                Academic Editor: Claudio Letizia

                Article
                10.1155/2014/150358
                4283438
                Copyright © 2014 Blanca Estela Ríos-González et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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