17
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 46

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review

          Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            LPS-induced cytokine production in human monocytes and macrophages.

            Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is one of the most potent innate immune-activating stimuli known. Here we review the current understanding of LPS effects on human monocyte and macrophage function. We provide an overview of LPS signal transduction with attention given to receptor cooperativity and species differences in LPS responses, as well as the role of tyrosine phosphorylation and lysine acetylation in signalling. We also review LPS-regulated transcription, with emphasis on chromatin remodeling and primary versus secondary transcriptional control mechanisms. Finally, we review the regulation and function of LPS-inducible cytokines produced by human monocytes and macrophages including TNFα, the IL-1 family, IL-6, IL-8, the IL-10 family, the IL-12 family, IL-15 and TGFβ.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae).

              The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, alpha-terpineol, beta-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC(50)=1.56 micro g/ml) and exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging effect in the Fe(3+)-EDTA-H(2)O(2) deoxyribose system (IC(50)=2.7 micro g/ml). It also inhibited the nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate (IC(50)=13.5 micro g/ml). The polar phase of the extract showed antioxidant activity. The oil showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium perfringens, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida krusei while water-insoluble parts of the methanolic extracts exhibited slight or no activity. This study confirms that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in vitro.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1422-0067
                July 2013
                24 June 2013
                : 14
                : 7
                : 12978-12993
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, 200, Sec. 7, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu Dist., Taichung 43301, Taiwan; E-Mails: stchou@ 123456pu.edu.tw (S.-T.C.); g9522501@ 123456pu.edu.tw (H.-Y.P.)
                [2 ]Department of Applied Cosmetology, Hung Kuang University, 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu Dist., Taichung 43302, Taiwan; E-Mail: jchsu@ 123456sunrise.hk.edu.tw
                [3 ]Department of Cosmetic Science, Providence University, 200, Sec. 7, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu Dist., Taichung 43301, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: chchlin@ 123456pu.edu.tw (C.-C.L.); yingshih@ 123456pu.edu.tw (Y.S.); Tel.: +886-4-2632-8001 (ext. 15409) (C.-C.L.); +886-4-2632-8001 (ext. 15470) (Y.S.); Fax: +886-4-2631-1167 (C.-C.L. & Y.S.).
                Article
                ijms-14-12978
                10.3390/ijms140712978
                3742169
                23797659
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article