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      Bacterial Biofilm Eradication Agents: A Current Review

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          Abstract

          Most free-living bacteria can attach to surfaces and aggregate to grow into multicellular communities encased in extracellular polymeric substances called biofilms. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy and a major cause of persistent and recurrent infections by clinically important pathogens worldwide (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus). Currently, most biofilm remediation strategies involve the development of biofilm-inhibition agents, aimed at preventing the early stages of biofilm formation, or biofilm-dispersal agents, aimed at disrupting the biofilm cell community. While both strategies offer some clinical promise, neither represents a direct treatment and eradication strategy for established biofilms. Consequently, the discovery and development of biofilm eradication agents as comprehensive, stand-alone biofilm treatment options has become a fundamental area of research. Here we review our current understanding of biofilm antibiotic tolerance mechanisms and provide an overview of biofilm remediation strategies, focusing primarily on the most promising biofilm eradication agents and approaches. Many of these offer exciting prospects for the future of biofilm therapeutics for a large number of infections that are currently refractory to conventional antibiotics.

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          Most cited references130

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          Riddle of biofilm resistance.

          K. Lewis (2001)
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            Biofilms in chronic wounds.

            Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds.
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              The EPS matrix: the "house of biofilm cells".

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Chem
                Front Chem
                Front. Chem.
                Frontiers in Chemistry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2646
                28 November 2019
                2019
                : 7
                : 824
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane, QLD, Australia
                [2] 2School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane, QLD, Australia
                [3] 3School of Chemistry, Physics, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane, QLD, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Nenad Filipović, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Serbia

                Reviewed by: Fany Reffuveille, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France; Jelena Lozo, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Serbia

                *Correspondence: Anthony D. Verderosa anthony.verderosa@ 123456qut.edu.au

                This article was submitted to Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Chemistry

                Article
                10.3389/fchem.2019.00824
                6893625
                31850313
                475ddd66-146f-44b6-9230-1608f9c4d127
                Copyright © 2019 Verderosa, Totsika and Fairfull-Smith.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 02 September 2019
                : 12 November 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 15, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 166, Pages: 17, Words: 12785
                Funding
                Funded by: Queensland University of Technology 10.13039/501100001793
                Categories
                Chemistry
                Review

                antibiotics,bacteria,biofilm,biofilm antibiotic tolerance,biofilm eradication agent,infection,resistance

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