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      Transfer of human serum IgG to nonobese diabetic Ig null mice reveals a role for autoantibodies in the loss of secretory function of exocrine tissues in Sjogren's syndrome

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          B lymphocytes are essential for the initiation of T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes: analysis of a new "speed congenic" stock of NOD.Ig mu null mice

          The T lymphocytes mediating autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) may be generated due to functional defects in hematopoietically derived antigen-presenting cells (APC). However, it has not been clear which particular subpopulations of APC (B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) contribute to the development and activation of diabetogenic T cells in NOD mice. In the current study we utilized a functionally inactivated immunoglobulin (Ig) mu allele (Ig mu null) to generate a "speed congenic" stock of B lymphocyte-deficient NOD mice that are fixed for linkage markers delineating previously identified diabetes susceptibility (Idd) genes. These B lymphocyte NOD.Ig mu null mice had normal numbers of T cells but were free of overt IDDM and insulitis resistant, while the frequency of disease in the B lymphocyte intact segregants was equivalent to that of standard NOD mice in our colony. Thus, B lymphocytes play a heretofore unrecognized role that is essential for the initial development and/or activation of beta cell autoreactive T cells in NOD mice.
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            B-cells are required for the initiation of insulitis and sialitis in nonobese diabetic mice.

            Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop an acute onset of hyperglycemia reminiscent of human type I diabetes. The disease is the end result of a mononuclear cell infiltration of pancreatic islets (insulitis), culminating in the selective destruction of islet beta-cells by autoreactive T-cells. NOD mice also exhibit defects in B-cell tolerance as manifested by the presence of autoantibodies against islet cell autoantigens. Based on the potential ability of B-cells to act as antigen presenting cells, we hypothesized that autoreactive B-cells of NOD mice may be necessary for the activation of islet reactive CD4+ T-cells. In the present study, we utilized an anti-mu antibody to induce in vivo depletion of B-cells and found that B-cell depletion completely abrogates the development of insulitis and sialitis in NOD mice. In contrast, control IgG-treated NOD mice developed insulitis and sialitis by 5 weeks of age. Additionally, the discontinuation of anti-mu chain antibody treatment led to the full restoration of the B-cell pool and the reappearance of insulitis and sialitis. Thus, we conclude that B-cells are a requisite cell population for the genesis of the inflammatory lesions of the islets of Langerhans. This finding suggests that autoreactive B-cells may act as the antigen presenting cells necessary for the initial activation of beta-cell-reactive CD4+ T-cells implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes.
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              Circulating antibodies against rat parotid gland M3 muscarinic receptors in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

              In this study we demonstrate that IgG present in the sera of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) could bind and activate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) of rat parotid gland. These antibodies were able to inhibit in a non-competitive manner the binding of 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) to mAChRs of purified rat parotid gland membranes. Moreover, IgG from PSS could modify biological effects mediated by mAChR activation; i.e. decrease cAMP, increase phosphoinositide turnover without affecting cGMP. Atropine and 4-DAMP blocked all of these effects, and carbachol mimicked them, confirming the M3 subtype mAChRs mediated PSS IgG action. Neither binding nor biological effect were obtained with IgG from sera of normal women. The prevalence of cholinergic antibody was 100% in PSS, and was independent of Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B antibodies. It could be concluded that antibody against mAChRs may be another serum factor to be considered in the pathophysiology of the development of PSS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                June 23 1998
                June 23 1998
                : 95
                : 13
                : 7538-7543
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.95.13.7538
                © 1998
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