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      Genetic Disorders in the Growth Hormone – Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Axis

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          Abstract

          In the last few years, our knowledge of genetically determined causes of short stature has greatly increased by reports of challenging patients, who offered the opportunity to study genes that play a role in growth. Since the first paper that showed the etiology of Laron syndrome [Godowski PJ, et al: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989;86:8083–8087], many mutations in the growth hormone (GH) receptor have been identified. Recently, new mutations or deletions have been found in several components of the GH–insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis: a homozygous mutation of the GH1 gene, resulting in a bio-inactive GH; mutations in the STAT5b gene, which plays a major role in the GH signal transduction; a homozygous missense mutation in the IGF-I gene; heterozygous mutations in the IGF-I receptor gene and a homozygous deletion of the acid-labile subunit gene. In this mini review, we describe the clinical and biochemical features of these genetic defects. Genetic analysis has become essential in the diagnostic workup of a patient with short stature. However, regarding the time consuming nature of molecular analysis, it is important to carefully select the patient for specific genetic evaluation. To help in this selection process, we developed flowcharts, based on the recently described patients, that can be used as guidelines in the diagnostic process of patients with severe short stature of unknown origin.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with deletion of the insulin-like growth factor I gene.

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            Growth hormone insensitivity associated with a STAT5b mutation.

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              Characterization of the human growth hormone receptor gene and demonstration of a partial gene deletion in two patients with Laron-type dwarfism.

              Laron-type dwarfism is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is characterized by high levels of growth hormone and low levels of insulin-like growth factor I in the circulation. Several lines of evidence suggest that this disease is caused by a defect in the growth hormone receptor. In order to analyze the receptor gene in patients with Laron-type dwarfism and with other growth disorders, we have first determined the gene structure in normal individuals. There are nine exons that encode the receptor and several additional exons in the 5' untranslated region. The coding exons span at least 87 kilobase pairs of chromosome 5. Characterization of the growth hormone receptor gene from nine patients with Laron-type dwarfism shows that two individuals have a deletion of a large portion of the extracellular, hormone binding domain of the receptor gene. Interestingly, this deletion includes nonconsecutive exons, suggesting that an unusual rearrangement may have occurred. Thus, we provide direct evidence that Laron-type dwarfism can result from a defect in the structural gene for the growth hormone receptor.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2006
                October 2006
                20 October 2006
                : 66
                : 5
                : 221-230
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Article
                95161 Horm Res 2006;66:221–230
                10.1159/000095161
                16917171
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Mini Review

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