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      Risk of selected gastrointestinal toxicities associated with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the treatment of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of published trials

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          Abstract

          Aims

          We aimed to comprehensively assess the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities associated with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients.

          Materials and methods

          We searched several databases for relevant trials. Eligible studies included prospective Phase II and III trials of ovarian cancer patients on the four PARPis (olaparib, veliparib, niraparib and rucaparib), describing events of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. Summary incidence, relative risk (RR), and 95% CIs were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models.

          Results

          A total of 2,286 ovarian cancer patients from 12 trials were included for analysis. Our results showed that summary incidences of all-grade gastrointestinal events in ovarian cancer patients were nausea 68.8% (95% CI, 63.5%–73.6%), vomiting 36.2% (95% CI, 30.9%–41.8%), diarrhea 25.3% (95% CI, 21.2%–29.8%), and constipation 25.3% (95% CI, 17.9%–34.5%). The RRs of all-grade nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation were 2.00 (95% CI: 1.79–2.24; P<0.001), 2.12 (95% CI: 1.75–2.58; P<0.001), 1.20 (95% CI: 1.01–1.44; P=0.044), and 1.20 (95% CI: 0.88–1.80; P=0.21); respectively. While, the RRs of high-grade nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation were 3.74 (95% CI: 1.50–9.36; P=0.005), 2.81 (95% CI: 1.17–6.74; P=0.02), 0.56 (95% CI: 0.22–1.43; P=0.23), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.34–2.49, P=0.87); respectively.

          Conclusion

          Our study suggests that the risk of all-grade gastrointestinal toxicities associated with PARPis, excepting constipation, is significantly increased in ovarian cancer patients. And the use of PARPis significantly increased the risk of developing high-grade nausea and vomiting, but not for diarrhea and constipation. Close clinical monitoring is recommended when administering these drugs.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and recurrent ovarian cancer: a proof-of-concept trial.

          Olaparib is a novel, orally active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that induces synthetic lethality in homozygous BRCA-deficient cells. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of olaparib for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In this international, multicentre, phase 2 study, we enrolled two sequential cohorts of women (aged >or=18 years) with confirmed genetic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, and recurrent, measurable disease. The study was undertaken in 12 centres in Australia, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the USA. The first cohort (n=33) was given continuous oral olaparib at the maximum tolerated dose of 400 mg twice daily, and the second cohort (n=24) was given continuous oral olaparib at 100 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00494442. Patients had been given a median of three (range 1-16) previous chemotherapy regimens. ORR was 11 (33%) of 33 patients (95% CI 20-51) in the cohort assigned to olaparib 400 mg twice daily, and three (13%) of 24 (4-31) in the cohort assigned to 100 mg twice daily. In patients given olaparib 400 mg twice daily, the most frequent causally related adverse events were nausea (grade 1 or 2, 14 [42%]; grade 3 or 4, two [6%]), fatigue (grade 1 or 2, ten [30%]; grade 3 or 4, one [3%]), and anaemia (grade 1 or two, five [15%]; grade 3 or 4, one [3%]). The most frequent causally related adverse events in the cohort given 100 mg twice daily were nausea (grade 1 or 2, seven [29%]; grade 3 or 4, two [8%]) and fatigue (grade 1 or 2, nine [38%]; none grade 3 or 4). Findings from this phase 2 study provide positive proof of concept of the efficacy and tolerability of genetically targeted treatment with olaparib in BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer. AstraZeneca. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Olaparib in patients with recurrent high-grade serous or poorly differentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer: a phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised study.

            Olaparib (AZD2281) is a small-molecule, potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of this drug in patients without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations with advanced triple-negative breast cancer or high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian cancer. In this phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised study, women with advanced high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer were enrolled and received olaparib 400 mg twice a day. Patients were stratified according to whether they had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation or not. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). All patients who received treatment were included in the analysis of toxic effects, and patients who had measurable lesions at baseline were included in the primary efficacy analysis. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00679783. 91 patients were enrolled (65 with ovarian cancer and 26 breast cancer) and 90 were treated between July 8, 2008, and Sept 24, 2009. In the ovarian cancer cohorts, 64 patients received treatment. 63 patients had target lesions and therefore were evaluable for objective response as per RECIST. In these patients, confirmed objective responses were seen in seven (41%; 95% CI 22-64) of 17 patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and 11 (24%; 14-38) of 46 without mutations. No confirmed objective responses were reported in patients with breast cancer. The most common adverse events were fatigue (45 [70%] of patients with ovarian cancer, 13 [50%] of patients with breast cancer), nausea (42 [66%] and 16 [62%]), vomiting (25 [39%] and nine [35%]), and decreased appetite (23 [36%] and seven [27%]). Our study suggests that olaparib is a promising treatment for women with ovarian cancer and further assessment of the drug in clinical trials is needed. AstraZeneca. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Heterogeneity testing in meta-analysis of genome searches.

              Genome searches for identifying susceptibility loci for the same complex disease often give inconclusive or inconsistent results. Genome Search Meta-analysis (GSMA) is an established non-parametric method to identify genetic regions that rank high on average in terms of linkage statistics (e.g., lod scores) across studies. Meta-analysis typically aims not only to obtain average estimates, but also to quantify heterogeneity. However, heterogeneity testing between studies included in GSMA has not been developed yet. Heterogeneity may be produced by differences in study designs, study populations, and chance, and the extent of heterogeneity might influence the conclusions of a meta-analysis. Here, we propose and explore metrics that indicate the extent of heterogeneity for specific loci in GSMA based on Monte Carlo permutation tests. We have also developed software that performs both the GSMA and the heterogeneity testing. To illustrate the concept, the proposed methodology was applied to published data from meta-analyses of rheumatoid arthritis (4 scans) and schizophrenia (20 scans). In the first meta-analysis, we identified 11 bins with statistically low heterogeneity and 8 with statistically high heterogeneity. The respective numbers were 9 and 6 for the schizophrenia meta-analysis. For rheumatoid arthritis, bins 6.2 (the HLA region that is a well-documented susceptibility locus for the disease) and 16.3 (16q12.2-q23.1) had both high average ranks and low between-study heterogeneity. For schizophrenia, this was seen for bin 3.2 (3p25.3-p22.1) and heterogeneity was still significantly low after adjusting for its high average rank. Concordance was high between the proposed metrics and between weighted and unweighted analyses. Data from genome searches should be synthesized and interpreted considering both average ranks and heterogeneity between studies. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                17 September 2018
                : 12
                : 3013-3019
                Affiliations
                Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics, Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China, guichanwang@ 123456sohu.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guichan Wang, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yuhuangding Hospital, 20 East Yuhuangding Road, Yantai 264000, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 535 669 1999, Fax +86 535 669 1998, Email guichanwang@ 123456sohu.com
                Article
                dddt-12-3013
                10.2147/DDDT.S164553
                6147204
                © 2018 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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