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      Enhanced Neuropeptide Y Immunoreactivity and Vasoconstriction in Mesenteric Small Arteries from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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          Abstract

          Enhanced sympathetic nerve activity is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced vasocontractile response to perivascular stimulation of mesenteric arteries isolated from female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Innervation of mesenteric small arteries was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy while functional studies were conducted in a microvascular myograph. The distribution of nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) was similar in mesenteric small arteries from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats. However, immunointensity of TH or NPY immunoreactivities were much higher in small arteries from SHR compared to WKY. Expressed as percentage of contractions elicited by 124 m M K<sup>+</sup>, concentration-response curves for noradrenaline (NA) and NPY were shifted leftward in SHR compared with WKY rats. The combination of noradrenaline (1 µ M) and NPY (10 n M) contracted mesenteric arteries from WKY and SHR to higher levels than compared to either contractile agent added alone. The NPY Y<sub>1</sub> receptor antagonist, BIBP 3226, inhibited these contractions with 87 ± 0.7 and 80 ± 1.3% (p < 0.05, n = 6) in arteries from WKY and SHR rats, respectively. In arteries incubated with the α<sub>1</sub>-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, and preactivated with vasopressin, electrical field stimulation evoked contractions which were more pronounced in mesenteric arteries from SHR compared to WKY rats. BIBP 3226 partially inhibited these contractions. In vasopressin-activated arteries BIBP 3226 caused rightward shifts of the concentration-response curves for NPY in mesenteric arteries from SHR rats, but in addition it also abolished the maximal NPY contraction in arteries from WKY rats. In the presence of BIBP 3226, low concentrations (1 p M to 10 n M) of NPY caused relaxations in arteries from WKY, but not in segments from SHR rats. Mechanical removal of the endothelium abolished NPY relaxation in arteries from WKY. In arteries activated with vasopressin and exposed to either forskolin or sodium nitroprusside, the addition of NPY evoked contractions which were more pronounced in arteries from SHR compared to WKY arteries. The present study suggests that enhanced NPY content and vasoconstriction to NPY in arteries from hypertensive rats can contribute to the enhanced sympathetic nerve activity and vascular resistance in female hypertensive rats. Endothelial cell dysfunction as well as alterations in smooth muscle response to NPY seem to contribute to the enhanced vasoconstriction in arteries from hypertensive animals.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Neuropeptide Y stimulates proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells: cooperation with noradrenaline and ATP.

          Since the sympathetic nervous system has been shown to exert a trophic influence on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), we studied the growth regulating effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cooperation with the sympathetic co-transmitters noradrenaline and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in human vascular SMC. NPY stimulated DNA synthesis in human SMC grown from subcutaneous arteries and veins (diameter: 0.4 mm) measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Also cell number and protein synthesis were stimulated. The effect was mediated through the Y1-receptor and not Y2 or Y3 since the Y1-selective NPY analogue Pro34-NPY and peptide YY stimulated mitogenesis in the same magnitude as NPY while the NPY-fragment NPY13-36 only had minor effects. The effect was blocked by pretreating the cells with pertussis toxin indicating a Gi/o-coupled effect. The other sympathetic co-transmitters, noradrenaline and ATP, also stimulated mitogenesis in the human SMC in a similar magnitude as NPY. When added together NPY and noradrenaline potentiated each other in the mitogenic response. ATP had mainly additive effects. This is the first demonstration that NPY, noradrenaline and ATP stimulates growth in human vascular SMC. This suggests a role of the sympathetic cotransmitters in modulating vascular tone, but also by inducing hypertrophy/hyperplasia with possible clinical consequences.
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            Y1 receptors for neuropeptide Y are coupled to mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

            Two types of binding sites have previously been described for neuropeptide Y (NPY), called Y1 and Y2 receptors. The intracellular events following Y1 receptor activation was studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. Both NPY and the specific Y1 receptor ligand, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY, caused a rapid and transient increase in the concentration of free calcium in the cytoplasm as measured by the fluorescent probe, Fura-2. The effect of both peptides was independent of extracellular calcium as addition of EGTA or manganese neither changed the size nor the shape of the calcium response. The calcium response to NPY was abolished by pretreatment with thapsigargin, which can selectively deplete a calcium store in the endoplasmic reticulum. Y1 receptor stimulation, by both NPY and [Leu31,Pro34]NPY, also inhibited the forskolin-stimulated cAMP production with an EC50 of 3.5 nM. There was a close relation between the receptor binding and the cellular effects as half-maximal displacement of [125I-Tyr36]monoiodoNPY from the receptor was obtained with 2.1 nM NPY. The Y2-specific ligand NPY(16-36)peptide had no effect on either intracellular calcium or cAMP levels in the SK-N-MC cells. It is concluded that Y1 receptor stimulation is associated with both mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity.
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              Neuropeptide Y—Mediated Constriction and Dilation in Rat Middle Cerebral Arteries

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2003
                June 2003
                08 August 2003
                : 40
                : 3
                : 252-265
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Physiology, Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, bInstitute of Anatomy and Cell Biology and cDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden; dDepartment of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
                Article
                71889 J Vasc Res 2003;40:252–265
                10.1159/000071889
                12902638
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 65, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Paper

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