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      Age- and Gender-Related Differences in Human Lacrimal Fluid Peroxidase Activity

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          Abstract

          There is evidence to suggest that estrogen influences lacrimal fluid peroxidase activity in women. In this study we investigated changes in peroxidase activity related to ageing and gender. These changes might help to explain the common problem of dry-eye syndrome in menopausal women. Unstimulated tears were collected from 70 healthy subjects of both sexes (age range 24–90 years). Tear samples were collected from 9 to 10 a.m., when peroxidase activity remained stable. In women, lacrimal fluid peroxidase activity decreased significantly during the menopause (p < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA), and thereafter remained unchanged. Conversely, in men, lacrimal fluid peroxidase activity decreased later, declining significantly only towards the age of 80 (p < 0.05). Lacrimal fluid peroxidase activity differs in men and women: the gender-related difference accentuates during ageing, probably owing to changing estrogen levels.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Tear and serum soluble leukocyte activation markers in conjunctival allergic diseases.

          To measure markers of leukocyte activation in patients with an exclusively ocular inflammatory or bacterial disease. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase, eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil neurotoxin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor were measured in serum and tears of 17 patients with allergic vernal keratoconjunctivitis, seven with atopic keratoconjunctivitis, 11 with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, seven with giant papillary conjunctivitis, 13 with rosacea blepharokeratoconjunctivitis, seven with bacterial conjunctivitis, and 13 normal subjects as controls. In serum of patients with vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, levels of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil neurotoxin, and interleukin-2 receptor were significantly increased compared with control subjects but were not correlated with the severity of ocular symptoms. In tears of patients with vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis and seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, as well as in the nonallergic diseases, rosacea blepharokeratoconjunctivitis and bacterial conjunctivitis, levels of eosinophil cationic protein, neurotoxin, and interleukin-2 receptor were significantly increased compared with control subjects. The highest values of these markers were found in vernal keratoconjunctivitis samples. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase was significantly increased in vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis, rosacea blepharokeratoconjunctivitis, and bacterial conjunctivitis. In vernal keratoconjunctivitis, tear markers were correlated to the clinical score of the disease, but not with cytology. Tear histamine was measured in 10 allergic patients after allergen challenge. Although none of the above markers can be considered specific to a single disease, their measurement may still be useful for the quantification of local cell activation in ocular inflammatory diseases.
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            Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen and progesterone receptor in human cornea.

            For treatment of postmenopausal keratoconjunctivitis sicca hormone therapy is favored by some clinicians. The likely morphological basis assessing the hormone receptor status in the human cornea has not been performed. Immunohistochemical staining methods provide the opportunity to evaluate the hormone receptor content within the histologic compartments of the cornea. The aim of our study was to assess and localize immunohistochemical hormone receptor staining in the human cornea. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of three pre- and three postmenopausal women were assessed for localization of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression with established immunohistochemical hormone receptor staining methods. No nuclear staining reaction was found in the epi- and endothelial layers of the corneas. The stroma of the corneas showed no immunohistochemical staining reaction in all cases. We found cytoplasmatic PR staining of the endothelial layer in two cases. We found no morphological basis in the human cornea for the use of topical steroid hormone treatment in postmenopausal keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Hormone receptor expression in the conjunctiva or in the lacrimal gland may have an impact in some patients showing relief of symptoms in postmenopausal dry eye syndrome.
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              Variations of Lacrimal Fluid Peroxidase Activity in Female and Male Rats

              Previous research from this laboratory showed that human lacrimal fluid peroxidase has cyclic variations during the menstrual cycle, correlated with plasma levels of 17β-oestradiol. In the present investigation, variations of enzyme activity and total protein content during the oestrous cycle of young adult female rats are analysed. Effects from circadian rhythm and a gender-related influence are also examined. In female rats, as in women, lacrimal fluid peroxidase activity shows cyclic variations; in fact, it significantly (p < 0.05) changes during the different phases of the oestrous cycle. In contrast, in males such variations do not occur. Thus, we suggest that gender seems to exert a significant influence on the secretion of this specific tear protein, probably by a direct effect of oestrogens.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2003
                August 2003
                17 June 2003
                : 217
                : 4
                : 294-297
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Basic and Applied Biology, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, bDepartment of Pharmacology of Natural Substances and General Physiology, University of Rome, ‘La Sapienza’, and cEye Clinic, II University of Rome, ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy
                Article
                70638 Ophthalmologica 2003;217:294–297
                10.1159/000070638
                12792137
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 30, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences, Ophthalmology & Optometry, Pathology

                Peroxidase activity, Estrogen, Lacrimal fluid, Gender, Age

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