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      Synthesis and characterization of a novel organic nitrate NDHP: Role of xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitric oxide formation

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          Abstract

          In this report, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-bis(hexyloxy)propan-2-yl nitrate (NDHP), a novel organic mono nitrate. Using purified xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we found that XOR catalyzes nitric oxide (NO) generation from NDHP under anaerobic conditions, and that thiols are not involved or required in this process. Further mechanistic studies revealed that NDHP could be reduced to NO at both the FAD and the molybdenum sites of XOR, but that the FAD site required an unoccupied molybdenum site. Conversely, the molybdenum site was able to reduce NDHP independently of an active FAD site. Moreover, using isolated vessels in a myograph, we demonstrate that NDHP dilates pre-constricted mesenteric arteries from rats and mice. These effects were diminished when XOR was blocked using the selective inhibitor febuxostat. Finally, we demonstrate that NDHP, in contrast to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is not subject to development of tolerance in isolated mesenteric arteries.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Strategies to increase nitric oxide signalling in cardiovascular disease.

          Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signalling molecule in the cardiovascular, immune and central nervous systems, and crucial steps in the regulation of NO bioavailability in health and disease are well characterized. Although early approaches to therapeutically modulate NO bioavailability failed in clinical trials, an enhanced understanding of fundamental subcellular signalling has enabled a range of novel therapeutic approaches to be identified. These include the identification of: new pathways for enhancing NO synthase activity; ways to amplify the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway; novel classes of NO-donating drugs; drugs that limit NO metabolism through effects on reactive oxygen species; and ways to modulate downstream phosphodiesterases and soluble guanylyl cyclases. In this Review, we discuss these latest developments, with a focus on cardiovascular disease.
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            Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

            Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice.
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              Identification of the enzymatic mechanism of nitroglycerin bioactivation.

              Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN), originally manufactured by Alfred Nobel, has been used to treat angina and heart failure for over 130 years. However, the molecular mechanism of GTN biotransformation has remained a mystery and it is not well understood why "tolerance" (i.e., loss of clinical efficacy) manifests over time. Here we purify a nitrate reductase that specifically catalyzes the formation of 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate and nitrite from GTN, leading to production of cGMP and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle both in vitro and in vivo, and we identify it as mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (mtALDH). We also show that mtALDH is inhibited in blood vessels made tolerant by GTN. These results demonstrate that the biotransformation of GTN occurs predominantly in mitochondria through a novel reductase action of mtALDH and suggest that nitrite is an obligate intermediate in generation of NO bioactivity. The data also indicate that attenuated biotransformation of GTN by mtALDH underlies the induction of nitrate tolerance. More generally, our studies provide new insights into subcellular processing of NO metabolites and suggest new approaches to generating NO bioactivity and overcoming nitrate tolerance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Redox Biol
                Redox Biol
                Redox Biology
                Elsevier
                2213-2317
                26 May 2017
                October 2017
                26 May 2017
                : 13
                : 163-169
                Affiliations
                [a ]Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                [b ]Biotechnology Center, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
                [c ]Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
                Author notes
                [1]

                Equal contribution.

                Article
                S2213-2317(17)30205-7
                10.1016/j.redox.2017.05.014
                5458096
                28578274
                © 2017 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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                Research Paper

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