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      Effect of Etidronate Treatment on Bone Mass of Male Nephrolithiasis Patients with Idiopathic Hypercalciuria and Osteopenia

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          Osteopenia is frequently found among calcium stone forming (CSF) patients with hypercalciuria. We investigated the effect of a 2-year therapeutic course of etidronate, a bone-sparing agent, in 7 young male CSF patients. The treatment consisted of a cyclic intermittent administration of phosphate followed by sodium etidronate and calcium supplementation every 74 days. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured at 12-month intervals and bone biopsies performed at baseline and after 2 years were the primary efficacy parameters. Mean lumbar spine BMD increased significantly after the 1st year by 2.6 ± 1.0% (mean ± SE, p < 0.05) and nonsignificantly after the 2nd year by 5.6 ± 2.6%. Nonsignificant changes were observed for femoral neck mean BMD after either the 1st or the 2nd year (decrease of 2.0 ± 1.0% and 2.0 ± 3.0%, respectively). Mean histomorphometric parameters showed that bone volume, osteoid volume, and eroded surfaces did not differ from baseline (13.9 ± 2.2 vs. 12.2 ± 1.1%, 1.2 ± 0.7 vs. 2.6 ± 0.7%, and 20.7 ± 6.2 vs. 13.7 ± 1.3%, respectively). Osteoid surface was significantly lower than baseline values (9.5 ± 5.2 vs. 18.8 ± 5.3%, p < 0.05). These data suggest that etidronate given to young male CSF patients presenting with hypercalciuria and osteopenia led to a significant amelioration of BMD, evident only in the lumbar spine after 1 year of treatment. There was no histological evidence of long-term improvement in bone remodeling.

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          Fracture risk among patients with urolithiasis: a population-based cohort study.

          In a population-based retrospective cohort study, 624 Rochester, Minnesota residents with an initial symptomatic episode of urolithiasis in 1950 to 1974 were followed for 11,909 person-years for subsequent age-related fractures. During this period of observation, the number of patients with a first vertebral fracture was over four times the number expected on the basis of vertebral fracture incidence rates in the general population of Rochester [standardized morbidity ratio (SMR), 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 5.3]. The risk of vertebral fracture was elevated among men as well as women, and was associated with increasing age and with the use of corticosteroids for more than six months. However, vertebral fracture risk was increased nearly fourfold (SMR 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 4.9) among the urolithiasis patients without such exposure, which suggests that corticosteroids do not completely account for the association with vertebral fractures. There was no increase in the risk of hip, pelvis, proximal humerus or distal forearm fractures in this cohort of patients, and their survival was not impaired. Additional studies are needed to define the pathophysiology of vertebral fractures among patients with urolithiasis.
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            Bone mineral content in patients with calcium urolithiasis.

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              Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Increase in Bone Resorption Induced by a Low Calcium Diet


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 1998
                29 July 1998
                : 79
                : 4
                : 430-437
                a Nephrology Division and b Rheumatology Division, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil
                45089 Nephron 1998;79:430–437
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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