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      Urine hepcidin, netrin-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 levels in multicystic dysplastic kidney Translated title: Níveis de hepcidina, netrina-1, lipocalina associada a gelatinase neutrofílica e ligante de quimiocina C-C motif na urina do rim displásico multicístico

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          ABSTRACT

          Introduction:

          Glomerular hyperfiltration may lead to proteinuria and chronic kidney disease in unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). We aimed to investigate the urine neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), netrin-1, hepcidin, and C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 (MCP-1/CCL-2) levels in patients with MCDK.

          Methods:

          Thirty-two patients and 25 controls were included. The urine hepcidin, netrin-1, NGAL, and MCP-1/CCL-2 levels were determined by ELISA.

          Results:

          The patients had higher serum creatinine (Cr) levels, urine albumin, and netrin-1/ Cr ratio with lower GFR. There were positive correlations between urine protein/Cr, MCP-1/CCL-2/Cr, and netrin-1 with NGAL (r = 0.397, p = 0.031; r = 0.437, p = 0.041, r = 0.323, p = 0.042, respectively). Urine netrin-1/Cr was positively correlated with MCP-1/ CCL-2/Cr (r = 0.356, p = 0.045). There were positive associations between the presence of proteinuria and netrin-1/ Cr, MCP-1/CCL-2/Cr, and NGAL/Cr [Odds ratio (OR): 1.423, p = 0.037, OR: 1.553, p = 0.033, OR: 2.112, p = 0.027, respectively)]. ROC curve analysis showed that netrin-1/Cr, MCP-1/CCL-2/Cr, and NGAL/Cr had high predictive values for determining proteinuria p = 0.027, p = 0.041, p = 0.035, respectively). Urine hepcidin/ Cr was negatively correlated with tubular phosphorus reabsorption and was positively correlated with urine NGAL/Cr (r = -0.418, p = 0.019; r = 0.682, p = 0.000; respectively).

          Conclusions:

          MCP-1/CCL-2 may play a role in the development of proteinuria in MCDK. Netrin-1 may be a protective factor against proteinuria-induced renal injury. Urine hepcidin/Cr may reflect proximal tubule damage in MCDK. Urine NGAL/Cr may be a predictor of tubule damage by proteinuria.

          Resumo

          Introdução:

          A hiperfiltração glomerular pode causar proteinúria e doença renal crônica no rim displásico multicístico unilateral (RDM). Nosso objetivo foi investigar os níveis de lipocalina associada à gelatinase neutrofílica na urina (NGAL), netrina-1, hepcidina e quimiocina C-C com ligante-2 (MCP-1/CCL-2) em pacientes com RDM.

          Métodos:

          Trinta e dois pacientes e 25 controles foram incluídos. Os níveis urinários de hepcidina, netrin-1, NGAL e MCP-1/CCL-2 foram determinados por ELISA.

          Resultados:

          Os pacientes apresentaram níveis séricos mais elevados de creatinina (Cr), albumina na urina e relação netrina-1/Cr com menor TFG. Houve correlação positiva entre proteína na urina/Cr, MCP-1/CCL-2/Cr e netrina-1 com NGAL (r = 0,397, p = 0,031; r = 0,437, p = 0,041, r = 0,323, p = 0,042, respectivamente). A netrina-1/Cr na urina foi correlacionada positivamente com MCP- 1/CCL-2/Cr (r = 0,356, p = 0,045). Houve associações positivas entre a presença de proteinúria e netrina-1/Cr, MCP-1/ CCL-2/Cr e NGAL/Cr [Odds ratio (OR): 1,423, p = 0,037, OR: 1,553, p = 0,033, OR: 2,112, p = 0,027, respectivamente) ]. A análise da curva ROC mostrou que netrina-1/Cr, MCP-1/CCL-2/Cr e NGAL/ Cr apresentaram altos valores preditivos para determinar a proteinúria p = 0,027, p = 0,041, p = 0,035, respectivamente). A hepcidina/Cr na urina foi correlacionada negativamente com a reabsorção tubular de fósforo e positivamente com a NGAL/Cr na urina (r = -0,418, p = 0,019; r = 0,682, p = 0,000; respectivamente).

          Conclusões:

          MCP-1/CCL-2 pode ter participação no desenvolvimento de proteinúria no RDM. A Netrina-1 pode ser um fator protetor contra lesão renal induzida por proteinúria. Hepcidina/Cr na urina pode refletir danos em túbulos proximais no RDM. O valor de NGAL/Cr urinário pode ser um preditor de danos nos túbulos por proteinúria.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1): an overview.

          Chemokines constitute a family of chemoattractant cytokines and are subdivided into four families on the basis of the number and spacing of the conserved cysteine residues in the N-terminus of the protein. Chemokines play a major role in selectively recruiting monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, as well as in inducing chemotaxis through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Both CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 have been demonstrated to be induced and involved in various diseases. Migration of monocytes from the blood stream across the vascular endothelium is required for routine immunological surveillance of tissues, as well as in response to inflammation. This review will discuss these biological processes and the structure and function of CCL2.
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            K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification.

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              Immunoassay for human serum hepcidin.

              We developed and validated the first serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for hepcidin, the principal iron-regulatory hormone that has been very difficult to measure. In healthy volunteers, the 5% to 95% range of hepcidin concentrations was 29 to 254 ng/mL in men (n = 65) and 17 to 286 ng/mL in women (n = 49), with median concentrations 112 versus 65 (P 10 mg/dL), multiple myeloma, or chronic kidney disease. The new serum hepcidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay yields accurate and reproducible measurements that appropriately reflect physiologic, pathologic, and genetic influences, and is informative about the etiology of iron disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Bras Nefrol
                J Bras Nefrol
                jbn
                Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia
                0101-2800
                2175-8239
                19 August 2020
                Jul-Sep 2020
                : 42
                : 3
                : 280-289
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Turkey.
                [2 ]Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Turkey.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Nuran Cetin E-mail: nurancetin17@ 123456hotmail.com

                AUTHOR’S CONTRIBUTION

                All authors contributed to the design and development of the study, collection, analysis and interpretation of the data, writing of the article or in its critical revision and approval of the final version.

                CONFLICT OF INTEREST

                The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

                Article
                10.1590/2175-8239-JBN-2019-0022
                7657047
                32818222

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

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