Plague is a highly infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, which has the characteristics of strong infectivity, fast spread and high mortality. It seriously endangers people’s health and safety, and may even cause major public health emergencies. As there are still reports of plague cases in China in recent years, we know that the situation of plague prevention and control in China is still severe, and we must strengthen it. By analyzing the surveillance data of plague in China from 1950 to 2019 and the characteristics of plague cases reported since the 21st century, we can understand the epidemic situation and characteristics of plague in China to put forward appropriate prevention and control measures. The epidemic trend of plague in China has declined and some natural plague foci have been eliminated by long-term prevention and control strategy since establishment of the People’s Republic of China. In the 21st century, the plague epidemic characteristics are focal and sporadic, mostly occurring in the north-west and Qinghai Tibet regions, especially in Qinghai and Tibet. In addition, plague mostly occurred in the young and strong people who actively entered the epidemic area or contacted with the host animals that infected by Yersinia pestis. Through strengthening the monitoring of epidemic areas, the health education of people, correct diagnosis and efficient treatment of plague patients, the prevention and control of plague can be down much better.
摘要： 鼠疫是由鼠疫菌引起的烈性传染病, 具有传染性强、传播速度快、病死率高的特点, 严重危害人们的健康安 全, 甚至可能引发重大突发公共卫生事件。由于近年来我国仍有鼠疫病例报道, 可见我国鼠疫防控形势仍然严峻, 鼠 疫的防治工作仍有待于加强。通过对1950—2019年全国鼠疫监测资料和21世纪以来报道的鼠疫病例的特征进行分 析, 进而了解我国鼠疫的疫情, 探讨鼠疫的流行特点, 提出相应的防控措施。新中国成立后, 通过长期的防控, 全国鼠 疫疫情总体呈下降趋势, 部分鼠疫自然疫源地巳被消除；进人21世纪后鼠疫疫情呈现局灶性与散发性的特点, 大多发 生于西北地区和青藏地区, 以青海省和西藏自治区较多, 且主要与青壮年主动进人疫区或者接触鼠疫菌的宿主动物有 关。应通过加大对疫区的监测, 加强对人们的健康教育, 正确诊断与高效治疗鼠疫患者, 进而做好鼠疫的防治工作。