Microbial mats are complex biofilms in which the major element cycles are represented at a millimeter scale. In this study, community variability within microbial mats from the Camargue wetlands (Rhone Delta, southern France) were analyzed over 3 years during two different seasons (spring and autumn) and at different layers of the mat (0–2, 2–4, and 4–6 mm). To assess bacterial diversity in the mats, amplicons of the V1–V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. The community’s functionality was characterized using two approaches: (i) inferred functionality through 16S rRNA amplicons genes according to PICRUSt, and (ii) a shotgun metagenomic analysis. Based on the reads distinguished, microbial communities were dominated by Bacteria (∼94%), followed by Archaea (∼4%) and Eukarya (∼1%). The major phyla of Bacteria were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which together represented 70–80% of the total population detected. The phylum Euryarchaeota represented ∼80% of the Archaea identified. These results showed that the total bacterial diversity from the Camargue microbial mats was not significantly affected by seasonal changes at the studied location; however, there were differences among layers, especially between the 0–2 mm layer and the other two layers. PICRUSt and shotgun metagenomic analyses revealed similar general biological processes in all samples analyzed, by season and depth, indicating that different layers were functionally stable, although some taxa changed during the spring and autumn seasons over the 3 years. Several gene families and pathways were tracked with the oxic-anoxic gradient of the layers. Genes directly involved in photosynthesis (KO, KEGG Orthology) were significantly more abundant in the top layer (0–2 mm) than in the lower layers (2–4 and 4–6 mm). In the anoxic layers, the presence of ferredoxins likely reflected the variation of redox reactions required for anaerobic respiration. Sulfatase genes had the highest relative abundance below 2 mm. Finally, chemotaxis signature genes peaked sharply at the oxic/photic and transitional oxic-anoxic boundary. This functional differentiation reflected the taxonomic diversity of the different layers of the mat.