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      Cyanobacterial removal by a red soil-based flocculant and its effect on zooplankton: an experiment with deep enclosures in a tropical reservoir in China

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          Abstract

          As one kind of cheap, environmentally-friendly and efficient treatment materials for direct control of cyanobacterial blooms, modified clays have been widely concerned. The present study evaluated cyanobaterial removal by a red soil-based flocculant (RSBF) with a large enclosure experiment in a tropical mesotrophic reservoir, in which phytoplankton community was dominated by Microcystis spp. and Anabaena spp. The flocculant was composed of red soil, chitosan and FeCl 3. Twelve enclosures were used in the experiment: three replicates for each of one control and three treatments RSBF 15 (15 mg FeCl 3 l −1), RSBF 25 (25 mg FeCl 3 l −1), and RSBF 35 (35 mg FeCl 3 l −1). The results showed that the red soil-based flocculant can significantly remove cyanobacterial biomass and reduce concentrations of nutrients including total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonia, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate. Biomass of Microcystis spp. and Anabaena spp. was reduced more efficiently (95%) than other filamentous cyanobacteria (50%). In the RSBF 15 treatment, phytoplankton biomass recovered to the level of the control group after 12 days and cyanobacteria quickly dominated. Phytoplankton biomass in the RSBF 25 treatment also recovered after 12 days, but green algae co-dominated with cyanobacteria. A much later recovery of phytoplankton until the day of 28 was observed under RSBF 35 treatment, and cyanobacteria did no longer dominate the phytoplankton community. The application of red soil-based flocculant greatly reduces zooplankton, especially rotifers, however, Copepods and Cladocera recovered fast. Generally, the red soil-based flocculant can be effective for urgent treatments at local scales in cyanobacteria dominating systems.

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.258164.c, ISNI 0000 0004 1790 3548, Institute of Hydrobiology, , Jinan University, ; Guangzhou, 510632 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.419897.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0369 313X, Engineering Research Center of Tropical and Subtropical Aquatic Ecological Engineering, Ministry of Education, ; Guangzhou, 510632 China
                Author notes

                Responsible editor: Vitor Manuel Oliveira Vasconcelos

                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8743-5132, 86-20-38374065 , tbphan@126.com , tbphan@jnu.edu.cn
                Journal
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0944-1344
                1614-7499
                26 June 2018
                26 June 2018
                2019
                : 26
                : 30
                : 30663-30674
                2572
                10.1007/s11356-018-2572-3
                6828625
                29946840
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 31070416
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Water Resource Department of Guangdong Province for warning and control of cyanobacterial blooms in small reservoirs
                Award ID: 2009-22
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: the Science and Technology Project for Application of Guangdong Province, China
                Award ID: 2015B020235007
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Water Environment Protection and Contamination Treatment
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

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