We present the first species list of squamate reptiles for the central region of the Chapada Diamantina, with a focus on the municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia Brazil. The data provided were mostly collected in the Caraíbas estate, during vegetation clearing operations for agriculture. The remnant records were collected from roadkills encountered in Mucugê and neighboring municipalities. We found 64 species of squamate reptiles including 35 species of snakes, 25 of lizards and four of amphisbaenians. These records have already yielded three species descriptions with others likely to follow. This is evidence of the poorly documented herpetological diversity of the Chapada Diamantina. The present work highlights the need for further research and the potential of less traditional data sources such as roadkills to improve the knowledge of the herpetofauna of extensive and megadiverse countries like Brazil.