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      Glymphatic transport is reduced in rats with spontaneous pituitary tumor


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          Background and objective

          Pituitary tumor in patients induces adverse alterations in the brain, accompanied by cognitive deficits. Dysfunction of glymphatic waste clearance results in accumulation of neurotoxic products within the brain, leading to cognitive impairment. However, the status of glymphatic function in the brain with pituitary tumor is unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and an advanced mathematical modeling, we investigated the changes of glymphatic transport in the rats carrying spontaneous pituitary tumor.


          Rats (22–24 months, female, Wistar) with and without pituitary tumor ( n = 7/per group) underwent the identical experimental protocol. MRI measurements, including T2-weighted imaging and dynamic 3D T1-weighted imaging with intracisternal administration of contrast agent, were performed on each animal. The contrast-induced enhancement in the circle of Willis and in the glymphatic influx nodes were observed on the dynamic images and verified with time-signal-curves (TSCs). Model-derived parameters of infusion rate and clearance rate that characterize the kinetics of glymphatic tracer transport were evaluated in multiple representative brain regions.


          Our imaging data demonstrated a higher incidence of partially enhanced circle of Willis (86 vs. 14%; p < 0.033) and a lower incidence of enhancement in glymphatic influx nodes of pituitary (71 vs. 100%) and pineal (57 vs. 86%) recesses in the rats with pituitary tumor than in the rats with normal appearance of pituitary gland, indicating an intensification of impaired peri-vascular pathway and impeded glymphatic transport due to the presence of pituitary tumor. Consistently, our kinetic modeling and regional cerebral tissue quantification revealed significantly lower infusion and clearance rates in all examined regions in rats with spontaneous pituitary tumor than in non-tumor rats, representing a suppressed glymphatic transport in the brain with pituitary tumor.


          Our study demonstrates the compromised glymphatic transport in the rat brain with spontaneous pituitary tumor. The reduced efficiency in cerebral waste clearance increases the risk for neurodegeneration in the brain that may underlie the cognitive impairment commonly seen in patients with pituitary tumors.

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          NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

          For the past twenty five years the NIH family of imaging software, NIH Image and ImageJ have been pioneers as open tools for scientific image analysis. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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            A paravascular pathway facilitates CSF flow through the brain parenchyma and the clearance of interstitial solutes, including amyloid β.

            Because it lacks a lymphatic circulation, the brain must clear extracellular proteins by an alternative mechanism. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) functions as a sink for brain extracellular solutes, but it is not clear how solutes from the brain interstitium move from the parenchyma to the CSF. We demonstrate that a substantial portion of subarachnoid CSF cycles through the brain interstitial space. On the basis of in vivo two-photon imaging of small fluorescent tracers, we showed that CSF enters the parenchyma along paravascular spaces that surround penetrating arteries and that brain interstitial fluid is cleared along paravenous drainage pathways. Animals lacking the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes exhibit slowed CSF influx through this system and a ~70% reduction in interstitial solute clearance, suggesting that the bulk fluid flow between these anatomical influx and efflux routes is supported by astrocytic water transport. Fluorescent-tagged amyloid β, a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease, was transported along this route, and deletion of the Aqp4 gene suppressed the clearance of soluble amyloid β, suggesting that this pathway may remove amyloid β from the central nervous system. Clearance through paravenous flow may also regulate extracellular levels of proteins involved with neurodegenerative conditions, its impairment perhaps contributing to the mis-accumulation of soluble proteins.
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              The Glymphatic System: A Beginner's Guide.

              The glymphatic system is a recently discovered macroscopic waste clearance system that utilizes a unique system of perivascular tunnels, formed by astroglial cells, to promote efficient elimination of soluble proteins and metabolites from the central nervous system. Besides waste elimination, the glymphatic system also facilitates  brain-wide distribution of several compounds, including glucose, lipids, amino acids, growth factors, and neuromodulators. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system function mainly during sleep and is largely disengaged during wakefulness. The biological need for sleep across all species may therefore reflect that the brain must enter a state of activity that enables elimination of potentially neurotoxic waste products, including β-amyloid. Since the concept of the glymphatic system is relatively new, we will here review its basic structural elements, organization, regulation, and functions. We will also discuss recent studies indicating that glymphatic function is suppressed in various diseases and that failure of glymphatic function in turn might contribute to pathology in neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury and stroke.

                Author and article information

                Front Med (Lausanne)
                Front Med (Lausanne)
                Front. Med.
                Frontiers in Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                04 August 2023
                : 10
                : 1189614
                [1] 1Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health , Detroit, MI, United States
                [2] 2Department of Physics, Oakland University , Rochester, MI, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Simona Gurzu, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureş, Romania

                Reviewed by: Giuseppe Barisano, Stanford University, Stanford, United States; Feng Han, University of California, Berkeley, United States

                *Correspondence: Quan Jiang, qjiang1@ 123456hfhs.org
                Copyright © 2023 Li, Ding, Zhang, Luo, Davoodi-Bojd, Li, Chopp, Zhang and Jiang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 19 March 2023
                : 24 July 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 92, Pages: 10, Words: 8107
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health (NIH), doi 10.13039/100000002;
                Award ID: RF1 AG057494
                Award ID: RO1 NS108463
                Original Research
                Custom metadata

                glymphatic transport,spontaneous pituitary tumor,rat,mri,kinetic modeling


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