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      Prerequisites for stakeholder framework: Consumer advocacy and health protection in the digital industry : Commentary on: Problematic risk-taking involving emerging technologies: A stakeholder framework to minimize harms (Swanton et al., 2019)

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      Journal of Behavioral Addictions
      Akadémiai Kiadó
      advocacy, consumer, health right, public health model

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          Abstract

          The World Health Organization (WHO) included gaming disorders in International Classification of Disease-11th (ICD-11) on May 25, 2019. Since then, some academics and the gaming industry have continued to argue over the health system's response to online addictive behaviors. Under these circumstances, a framework involving groups representing various interests is needed to derive a reasonable solution to the dispute over the inclusion of gaming disorders in ICD-11. For this framework to work effectively, it is necessary to agree on consistent and advanced research findings that harms related to the excessive use of digital devices or content continue to occur empirically all over the world and that addictive use constitutes a primary addictive disorder. The problematic risk taking involving emerging technologies may include not only health risks from addictive use, but also more general harms associated with digital ethics and norms such as privacy and transparent money transactions. An understanding of a public health model of addiction is required to reduce harms associated with online addictive behavior that exist behind risk taking. Such harms are also mediated by excessive use, excessive money spending, and exposure to addictive content such as violence and pornography. Major stakeholders and their roles can be derived more effectively based on these conceptual models and parameters of harms. In conclusion, the context of the proposed stakeholder framework should be further optimized on the basis of two principles: (1) advocating consumer rights as a general and standard approach to digital products; and (2) protecting consumers' health from harms related to addictive behaviors.

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          Most cited references31

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          Association between Internet Gaming Disorder or Pathological Video-Game Use and Comorbid Psychopathology: A Comprehensive Review

          The addictive use of video games is recognized as a problem with clinical relevance and is included in international diagnostic manuals and classifications of diseases. The association between “Internet addiction” and mental health has been well documented across a range of investigations. However, a major drawback of these studies is that no controls have been placed on the type of Internet use investigated. The aim of this study is to review systematically the current literature in order to explore the association between Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and psychopathology. An electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Google Scholar (r.n. CRD42018082398). The effect sizes for the observed correlations were identified or computed. Twenty-four articles met the eligibility criteria. The studies included comprised 21 cross-sectional and three prospective designs. Most of the research was conducted in Europe. The significant correlations reported comprised: 92% between IGD and anxiety, 89% with depression, 85% with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 75% with social phobia/anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Most of the studies reported higher rates of IGD in males. The lack of longitudinal studies and the contradictory results obtained prevent detection of the directionality of the associations and, furthermore, show the complex relationship between both phenomena.
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            Reduced striatal dopamine D2 receptors in people with Internet addiction.

            An increasing amount of research has suggested that Internet addiction is associated with abnormalities in the dopaminergic brain system. We hypothesized that Internet addiction would be associated with reduced levels of dopaminergic receptor availability in the striatum compared with controls. To test this hypothesis, a radiolabeled ligand [C]raclopride and positron emission tomography was used to assess dopamine D2 receptor binding potential in men with and without Internet addiction. Consistent with our prediction, individuals with Internet addiction showed reduced levels of dopamine D2 receptor availability in subdivisions of the striatum including the bilateral dorsal caudate and right putamen. This finding contributes to the understanding of neurobiological mechanism of Internet addiction.
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              Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game.

              Dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved in learning, reinforcement of behaviour, attention, and sensorimotor integration. Binding of the radioligand 11C-labelled raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors is sensitive to levels of endogenous dopamine, which can be released by pharmacological challenge. Here we use 11C-labelled raclopride and positron emission tomography scans to provide evidence that endogenous dopamine is released in the human striatum during a goal-directed motor task, namely a video game. Binding of raclopride to dopamine receptors in the striatum was significantly reduced during the video game compared with baseline levels of binding, consistent with increased release and binding of dopamine to its receptors. The reduction in binding of raclopride in the striatum positively correlated with the performance level during the task and was greatest in the ventral striatum. These results show, to our knowledge for the first time, behavioural conditions under which dopamine is released in humans, and illustrate the ability of positron emission tomography to detect neurotransmitter fluxes in vivo during manipulations of behaviour.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                2006
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                JBA
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                15 January 2021
                16 December 2020
                : 9
                : 4
                : 898-902
                Affiliations
                [1] Department of Psychiatry, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06591, South Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. nplhk@ 123456catholic.ac.kr
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4985-001X
                Article
                10.1556/2006.2020.00095
                8969714
                33325840
                47aa890f-ae34-4622-ab26-24e398d3b3ae
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                History
                : 23 August 2020
                : 25 October 2020
                : 29 October 2020
                Page count
                Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 05
                Categories
                Commentary

                Medicine,Psychology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                public health model,health right,consumer,advocacy

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