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Physicochemical Properties of Cells and Their Effects on Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs)

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      Most cited references 838

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      Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

      The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressures in the turbulent gas (Johansen, Klahr, & Henning 2006), and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005, Johansen, Henning, & Klahr 2006, Johansen & Youdin 2007) driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar discs.
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        The Dicke Quantum Phase Transition with a Superfluid Gas in an Optical Cavity

        A phase transition describes the sudden change of state in a physical system, such as the transition between a fluid and a solid. Quantum gases provide the opportunity to establish a direct link between experiment and generic models which capture the underlying physics. A fundamental concept to describe the collective matter-light interaction is the Dicke model which has been predicted to show an intriguing quantum phase transition. Here we realize the Dicke quantum phase transition in an open system formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity, and observe the emergence of a self-organized supersolid phase. The phase transition is driven by infinitely long-ranged interactions between the condensed atoms. These are induced by two-photon processes involving the cavity mode and a pump field. We show that the phase transition is described by the Dicke Hamiltonian, including counter-rotating coupling terms, and that the supersolid phase is associated with a spontaneously broken spatial symmetry. The boundary of the phase transition is mapped out in quantitative agreement with the Dicke model. The work opens the field of quantum gases with long-ranged interactions, and provides access to novel quantum phases.
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          Chromatin modifications and their function.

          The surface of nucleosomes is studded with a multiplicity of modifications. At least eight different classes have been characterized to date and many different sites have been identified for each class. Operationally, modifications function either by disrupting chromatin contacts or by affecting the recruitment of nonhistone proteins to chromatin. Their presence on histones can dictate the higher-order chromatin structure in which DNA is packaged and can orchestrate the ordered recruitment of enzyme complexes to manipulate DNA. In this way, histone modifications have the potential to influence many fundamental biological processes, some of which may be epigenetically inherited.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            []Department of NMR-supported Structural Biology, In-cell NMR Laboratory, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin) , Robert-Roessle Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany
            []Department of Biochemistry, University of Iowa , Bowen Science Building, 51 Newton Road, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, United States
            [§ ]Departments of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology and Chemistry, Program in Molecular & Cellular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst , 240 Thatcher Way, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States
            []Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290, United States
            []School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway , University Road, Galway, Ireland
            [# ]Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Wuhan, 430071, P.R. China
            Author notes
            Journal
            Chem Rev
            Chem. Rev
            cr
            chreay
            Chemical Reviews
            American Chemical Society
            0009-2665
            1520-6890
            05 June 2015
            05 June 2014
            09 July 2014
            : 114
            : 13 , 2014 Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs)
            : 6661-6714
            24901537
            4095937
            10.1021/cr400695p
            Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society

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            Funding
            National Institutes of Health, United States
            Categories
            Review
            Custom metadata
            cr400695p
            cr-2013-00695p

            Chemistry

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