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      Association of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and IgA Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis


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          Background/Aims: The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been extensively examined for the association with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN), however, conflicting results have occurred. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with IgAN in different ethnic groups. Methods: 11 studies testing the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and IgAN susceptibility, and 9 studies testing the association of ACE I/D with IgAN progression were used in this analysis. The overall odds ratio (OR) was estimated by a fixed or random effect model. Results: The overall OR for the risk of susceptibility and progression of IgAN in Asians for the DD genotype is 2.37 (95% CI 1.04–5.41) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.24–2.56). The overall OR for the D allele in Asians also showed a similar magnitude, though without statistical significance (p = 0.09, p = 0.13, respectively). In Caucasians, both the DD genotype and D allele were associated with IgAN progression (OR 1.90, 1.61, respectively), but not IgAN susceptibility (p = 0.30, p = 0.41, respectively). Conclusion: Our findings support the notion that ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with IgAN. Meanwhile, the role of ACE I/D polymorphism in Asians is different from that of Caucasians.

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          Most cited references30

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          The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the progression of chronic kidney disease.

          The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a well known regulator of blood pressure (BP) and determinant of target-organ damage. It controls fluid and electrolyte balance through coordinated effects on the heart, blood vessels, and Kidneys. Angiotensin II (AII) is the main effector of the RAAS and exerts its vasoconstrictor effect predominantly on the postglomerular arterioles, thereby increasing the glomerular hydraulic pressure and the ultrafiltration of plasma proteins, effects that may contribute to the onset and progression of chronic renal damage. AII may also directly contribute to accelerate renal damage by sustaining cell growth, inflammation, and fibrosis. Interventions that inhibit the activity of the RAAS are renoprotective and may slow or even halt the progression of chronic nephropathies. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists can be used in combination to maximize RAAS inhibition and more effectively reduce proteinuria and GFR decline in diabetic and nondiabetic renal disease. Recent evidence suggests that add-on therapy with an aldosterone antagonist may further increase renoprotection, but may also enhance the risk hyperkalemia. Maximized RAAS inhibition, combined with intensified blood pressure control (and metabolic control in diabetics) and amelioration of dyslipidemia in a multimodal approach including lifestyle modifications (Remission Clinic), may achieve remission of proteinuria and renal function stabilization in a substantial proportion of patients with proteinuric renal disease. Ongoing studies will tell whether novel drugs inhibiting the RAAS, such as the renin inhibitors or the vasopeptidase inhibitors, may offer additional benefits to those who do not respond, or only partially respond, to this multimodal regimen.
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            Treatment of IgA nephropathy with ACE inhibitors: a randomized and controlled trial.

            Some retrospective studies have suggested a beneficial influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on the progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), but prospective and controlled studies demonstrating this effect are lacking. Forty-four patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, proteinuria > or = 0.5 g/d, and serum creatinine (SCr) 1.5 mg/dl at the last visit and the evolution of proteinuria. Baseline clinical findings were similar at baseline between enalapril-treated and control group, and there were no differences in BP control during follow-up. Mean follow-up was 78 +/- 37 mo in the enalapril group and 74 +/- 36 mo in the control group. Three patients (13%) in the enalapril group and 12 (57%) in the control group reached the primary end point (P 1.5 mg/dl at the last visit (P < 0.05). Proteinuria significantly decreased in the enalapril group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P < 0.001 between groups). In conclusion, ACE inhibitors significantly improve renal survival in proteinuric IgAN with normal or moderately reduced renal function.
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              Genetic associations in large versus small studies: an empirical assessment.

              Advances in human genetics could help us to assess prognosis on an individual basis and to optimise the management of complex diseases. However, different studies on the same genetic association sometimes have discrepant results. Our aim was to assess how often large studies arrive at different conclusions than smaller studies, and whether this situation arises more frequently when findings of first published studies disagree with those of subsequent research. We examined the results of 55 meta-analyses (579 study comparisons) of genetic associations and tested whether the magnitude of the genetic effect differs in large versus smaller studies. We noted significant between-study heterogeneity in 26 (47%) meta-analyses. The magnitude of the genetic effect differed significantly in large versus smaller studies in ten (18%), 20 (36%), and 21 (38%) meta-analyses with tests of rank correlation, regression on SE, and regression on inverse of variance, respectively. The largest studies generally yielded more conservative results than the complete meta-analyses, which included all studies (p=0.005). In 14 (26%) meta-analyses the proposed association was significantly stronger in the first studies than in subsequent research. Only in nine (16%) meta-analyses was the genetic association significant and replicated without hints of heterogeneity or bias. There was little concordance in first versus subsequent discrepancies, and large versus small discrepancies. Genuine heterogeneity and bias could affect the results of genetic association studies. Genetic risk factors for complex diseases should be assessed cautiously and, if possible, using large scale evidence.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 511-518
                aDepartment of Nephrology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou, and bDepartment of Nephrology, 1st Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China
                97367 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:511–518
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 17 July 2006
                : 17 October 2006
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, References: 44, Pages: 8
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/97367
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/97367
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Immunoglobulin A nephropathy,Angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene,Insertion/deletion,Polymorphism


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