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      Urinary retention in female OAB after intravesical Botox injection: who is really at risk?

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          Introduction and hypothesis

          Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) injections are effective for the treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The aim of our study was to assess the predisposing factors for urinary retention in women with OAB after intravesical Botox injection.


          All participants were women of European descent with idiopathic OAB. OnabotulinumtoxinA (100 U) was administered in 20 intra-detrusor injections. Analysis was performed based on the results of safety assessments made during follow-up (FU) visits on weeks 2, 4 and 12, in 208 women who were treated with Botox injections for refractory OAB and who completed all FU visits.


          Women who required clean intermittent self-catheterisation (CISC) and those with post-void residual (PVR) greater than 200 ml were older in comparison with patients with PVR between 50 and 200 ml. Patients who required CISC were also characterised by higher parity and particularly by a higher number of vaginal deliveries. Other factors such as body mass index or comorbidities did not significantly influence PVR and the risk of CISC.


          Elderly and/or multiparous women are at increased risk of urinary retention after intravesical 100-U Botox injections. The risk of new onset urine retention in our study has completely disappeared 2 weeks after Botox injections. Based on our results of the way in which the PVRs have changed over time, we can conclude that OAB patients should be optimally assessed during the first 2 weeks after Botox injections.

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          Most cited references 24

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          The standardization of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction.

          This article presents a standard system of terminology recently approved by the International Continence Society, the American Urogynecologic Society, and the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons for the description of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction. An objective site-specific system for describing, quantitating, and staging pelvic support in women is included. It has been developed to enhance both clinical and academic communication regarding individual patients and populations of patients. Clinicians and researchers caring for women with pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction are encouraged to learn and use the system.
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            An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction.

            Next to existing terminology of the lower urinary tract, due to its increasing complexity, the terminology for pelvic floor dysfunction in women may be better updated by a female-specific approach and clinically based consensus report. This report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by many external referees. Appropriate core clinical categories and a subclassification were developed to give an alphanumeric coding to each definition. An extensive process of 15 rounds of internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). A terminology report for female pelvic floor dysfunction, encompassing over 250 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically based with the six most common diagnoses defined. Clarity and user-friendliness have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Female-specific imaging (ultrasound, radiology, and MRI) has been a major addition while appropriate figures have been included to supplement and help clarify the text. Ongoing review is not only anticipated but will be required to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. A consensus-based terminology report for female pelvic floor dysfunction has been produced aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research.
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              How widespread are the symptoms of an overactive bladder and how are they managed? A population-based prevalence study.

              To determine the prevalence of chronic and debilitating symptoms of the overactive bladder, defined here as the presence of chronic frequency, urgency and urge incontinence (either alone or in any combination), and presumed to be caused by involuntary detrusor contractions. Subjects and methods Data were collected using a population-based survey (conducted by telephone or direct interview) of men and women aged >/= 40 years, selected from the general population in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, using a random stratified approach. The main outcome measures were: prevalence of urinary frequency (> 8 micturitions/24 h), urgency and urge incontinence; the proportion of participants who had sought medical advice for symptoms of an overactive bladder; and current or previous therapy received for these symptoms. In all, 16 776 interviews were conducted in the six European countries. The overall prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms in individuals aged >/= 40 years was 16.6%. Frequency (85%) was the most commonly reported symptom, followed by urgency (54%) and urge incontinence (36%). The prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms increased with advancing age. Overall, 60% of respondents with symptoms had consulted a doctor but only 27% were currently receiving treatment. Conclusion Symptoms of an overactive bladder, of which frequency and urgency are as bothersome as urge incontinence, are highly prevalent in the general population. However, only a few affected individuals currently receive treatment. Taken together, such findings indicate that there is considerable scope for improvement in terms of how physicians diagnose and treat this condition.

                Author and article information

                +48-81-7244686 ,
                Int Urogynecol J
                Int Urogynecol J
                International Urogynecology Journal
                Springer London (London )
                26 November 2016
                26 November 2016
                : 28
                : 6
                : 845-850
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1033 7158, GRID grid.411484.c, 2nd Department of Gynaecology, , Medical University of Lublin, ; ul. Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, GRID grid.7445.2, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Urogynaecology, , Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1033 7158, GRID grid.411484.c, Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and Rheumatology, , Medical University of Lublin, ; Lublin, Poland
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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