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      La desnutrición infantil en el medio rural mexicano Translated title: Children malnutrition in rural Mexico


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          Objetivo. Conocer la situación nutricional de la población infantil del medio rural mexicano, comparándola con la situación previa y localizando las zonas más afectadas. Material y métodos. La muestra estuvo conformada por 38 232 familias, pertenecientes a 855 localidades, seleccionadas probabilísticamente. Se tomaron medidas antropométricas a 31 601 menores de cinco años. El análisis se realizó en consideración a la población de referencia peso/edad, peso/talla y talla/edad. Resultados. La desnutrición global afecta a 42.7% de los niños de acuerdo con el indicador peso/edad (IC= 1.9%); hace 22 años las formas de desnutrición moderada y severa eran de 17.4% y actualmente son de 19.3%. Respecto a talla/edad afecta a 55.9% (IC= 1.9%), y a peso/talla a 18.9%. Conclusiones. La ENAL96 muestra que la desnutrición sigue siendo un problema muy grave, que no se ha solucionado y que sigue afectando a las regiones del sur en donde hay mayor prevalencia de grupos indígenas.

          Translated abstract

          Objective. To evaluate the nutritional status of the infantile population in rural Mexico, compare it with previous data and situate the most affected areas. Material and Methods. The sample consisted of 38 232 families, from 855 randomly selected communities. Anthropometry was obtained from 31 601 children under five years of age and analysis was performed considering the reference values of weight/age, weight/height and height/age. Results. Overall malnutrition affects 42.7 of children according to weight/age indicator (CI= 1.9%). Moderate and severe malnutrition 22 years ago was 17.4% and now these affect 19.3%. Further data show that 55.9% are malnourished according to height/age, and 18.9% according to weight/height. Conclusions. The ENAL 96 shows that malnutrition is still a severe national problem which has not improved in the last 22 years. The areas of highest prevalence are the southern states which have mostly Indian population.

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          Development of normalized curves for the international growth reference: historical and technical considerations.

          The World Health Organization recommended in 1978 that the National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control growth reference curves be used as an international growth reference. To permit the expression of growth in terms of standard deviations, CDC developed growth curves from the observed data that approximate normal distributions. Because of significant skewness, standard deviations for weight-for-age and weight-for-height were calculated separately for distributions below and above the median. Standard deviations below the median were calculated from the 5th, 10th, 25th, and 50th observed percentiles while those above the median were based on the 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th observed percentiles. Height-for-age distributions did not show significant skewness, thus, the standard deviations were calculated based on all six of the above observed percentiles. The normalized reference curves provide a highly useful data base that permits the standardized comparison of anthropometric data from different populations.
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            Estandarizacion de métodos epidemiológicos cuantitativos sobre el terreno

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              La desnutrición infantil en el medio rural mexicano: análisis de las encuestas nacionales de alimentación


                Author and article information

                Salud Pública de México
                Salud pública Méx
                Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico )
                March 1998
                : 40
                : 2
                : 150-160
                [01] orgnameInstituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvañor Zubirán (INNSZ) orgdiv1 Subdirección General de Nutrición México
                [02] orgnameInstituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvañor Zubirán (INNSZ) orgdiv1 Departamento de Nutrición Aplicada y Educación Nutricional México
                S0036-36341998000200007 S0036-3634(98)04000207

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

                : 10 July 1997
                : 15 January 1998
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 20, Pages: 11

                SciELO Public Health

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)
                Artículos originales

                trastornos de la nutrición infantil,antropometría,encuestas nutricionales,México,infant nutrition disorders,anthropometry,nutrition surveys,Mexico


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