Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

The functionality of the gastrointestinal microbiome in non-human animals

,

Microbiome

BioMed Central

Microbiome, Bacteria, Gastrointestinal tract

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Due to the significance of the microbiome on human health, much of the current data available regarding microbiome functionality is centered on human medicine. For agriculturally important taxa, the functionality of gastrointestinal bacteria has been studied with the primary goals of improving animal health and production performance. With respect to cattle, the digestive functions of bacteria in cattle are unarguably critical to digestion and positively impact production performance. Conversely, some research suggests that the gastrointestinal microbiome in chickens competes with the host for nutrients and produces toxins that can harm the host resulting in decreased growth efficiency. Concerning many other species including reptiles and cetaceans, some cataloging of fecal bacteria has been conducted, but the functionality within the host remains ambiguous. These taxa could provide interesting gastrointestinal insight into functionality and symbiosis considering the extreme feeding regimes (snakes), highly specialized diets (vampire bats), and living environments (polar bears), which warrants further exploration.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 105

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system.

      Marked changes in socio-economic status, cultural traditions, population growth and agriculture are affecting diets worldwide. Understanding how our diet and nutritional status influence the composition and dynamic operations of our gut microbial communities, and the innate and adaptive arms of our immune system, represents an area of scientific need, opportunity and challenge. The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Gut inflammation provides a respiratory electron acceptor for Salmonella

        Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes acute gut inflammation by using its virulence factors to invade the intestinal epithelium and survive in mucosal macrophages. The inflammatory response enhances the transmission success of S. Typhimurium by promoting its outgrowth in the gut lumen through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that reactive oxygen species generated during inflammation reacted with endogenous, luminal sulphur compounds (thiosulfate) to form a new respiratory electron acceptor, tetrathionate. The genes conferring the ability to utilize tetrathionate as an electron acceptor produced a growth advantage for S. Typhimurium over the competing microbiota in the lumen of the inflamed gut. We conclude that S. Typhimurium virulence factors induce host-driven production of a new electron acceptor that allows the pathogen to use respiration to compete with fermenting gut microbes. Thus, the ability to trigger intestinal inflammation is crucial for the biology of this diarrhoeal pathogen.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine.

          Human beings contain complex societies of indigenous microbes, yet little is known about how resident bacteria shape our physiology. We colonized germ-free mice with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent component of the normal mouse and human intestinal microflora. Global intestinal transcriptional responses to colonization were observed with DNA microarrays, and the cellular origins of selected responses were established by laser-capture microdissection. The results reveal that this commensal bacterium modulates expression of genes involved in several important intestinal functions, including nutrient absorption, mucosal barrier fortification, xenobiotic metabolism, angiogenesis, and postnatal intestinal maturation. These findings provide perspectives about the essential nature of the interactions between resident microorganisms and their hosts.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]College of Genome Sciences and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN USA
            [ ]Department of Science, Lincoln International Academy, Managua, Nicaragua
            [ ]Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN USA
            Contributors
            865-946-1110 , ihanning@utk.edu
            Journal
            Microbiome
            Microbiome
            Microbiome
            BioMed Central (London )
            2049-2618
            10 November 2015
            10 November 2015
            2015
            : 3
            4640220 113 10.1186/s40168-015-0113-6
            © Hanning and Diaz-Sanchez. 2015

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Categories
            Review
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2015

            gastrointestinal tract, bacteria, microbiome

            Comments

            Comment on this article