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      Comparison of oral absorption models for pregabalin: usefulness of transit compartment model

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          Abstract

          Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and partial seizure in adults. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to describe the absorption characteristics of pregabalin given fasted or after meals. Data from five healthy subject PK studies (n=88) of single- or multiple-dose pregabalin (150 mg) were used. Pregabalin was administered twice daily, without meals or 30 min after a meal (regular or high-fat diet) in the morning and 30 min or 4 h after a meal (regular diet) in the evening. Serial plasma samples were collected up to 24 h after the last dose for PK analysis. Because the peak concentrations were not properly modeled by a conventional first-order absorption model, Erlang frequency distribution, Weibull-type absorption, and transit compartment models were tested on a two-compartment linear PK model using a nonlinear mixed-effects method (NONMEM; version 7.3). The transit compartment model best described the absorption characteristics of pregabalin regardless of meal status. We conclude that the absorption model should be carefully chosen based on the principle of model development and validation and not by following a conventional first-order absorption model for its popularity and simplicity, especially when the PK dataset includes densely sampled absorption-phase data.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine.

          A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (Ccr) from serum creatinine (Scr) in adult males: (see article)(15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18-92. Values for Ccr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour Ccr's measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr's of 0.83; on average, the difference predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.
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            Pharmacology and mechanism of action of pregabalin: the calcium channel alpha2-delta (alpha2-delta) subunit as a target for antiepileptic drug discovery.

            Pregabalin (Lyrica) is a new antiepileptic drug that is active in animal seizure models. Pregabalin is approved in US and Europe for adjunctive therapy of partial seizures in adults, and also has been approved for the treatment of pain from diabetic neuropathy or post-herpetic neuralgia in adults. Recently, it has been approved for treatment of anxiety disorders in Europe. Pregabalin is structurally related to the antiepileptic drug gabapentin and the site of action of both drugs is similar, the alpha2-delta (alpha2-delta) protein, an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels. Pregabalin subtly reduces the synaptic release of several neurotransmitters, apparently by binding to alpha2-delta subunits, and possibly accounting for its actions in vivo to reduce neuronal excitability and seizures. Several studies indicate that the pharmacology of pregabalin requires binding to alpha2-delta subunits, including structure-activity analyses of compounds binding to alpha2-delta subunits and pharmacology in mice deficient in binding at the alpha2-delta Type 1 protein. The preclinical findings to date are consistent with a mechanism that may entail reduction of abnormal neuronal excitability through reduced neurotransmitter release. This review addresses the preclinical pharmacology of pregabalin, and also the biology of the high affinity binding site, and presumed site of action.
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              Inhibition of neuronal Ca(2+) influx by gabapentin and pregabalin in the human neocortex.

              Gabapentin and pregabalin (S-(+)-3-isobutylgaba) produced concentration-dependent inhibitions of the K(+)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in fura-2-loaded human neocortical synaptosomes (IC(50)=17 microM for both compounds; respective maximal inhibitions of 37 and 35%). The weaker enantiomer of pregabalin, R-(-)-3-isobutylgaba, was inactive. These findings were consistent with the potency of these drugs to inhibit [(3)H]-gabapentin binding to human neocortical membranes. The inhibitory effect of gabapentin on the K(+)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was prevented by the P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker omega-agatoxin IVA. The alpha 2 delta-1, alpha 2 delta-2, and alpha 2 delta-3 subunits of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, presumed sites of gabapentin and pregabalin action, were detected with immunoblots of human neocortical synaptosomes. The K(+)-evoked release of [(3)H]-noradrenaline from human neocortical slices was inhibited by gabapentin (maximal inhibition of 31%); this effect was prevented by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[f]quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide). Gabapentin and pregabalin may bind to the Ca(2+) channel alpha 2 delta subunit to selectively attenuate depolarization-induced Ca(2+) influx of presynaptic P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels; this results in decreased glutamate/aspartate release from excitatory amino acid nerve terminals leading to a reduced activation of AMPA heteroreceptors on noradrenergic nerve terminals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                07 December 2016
                : 10
                : 3995-4003
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital
                [3 ]PIPET (Pharmacometrics Institute for Practical Education and Training), College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea
                [4 ]C&R Research, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dong-Seok Yim, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 222 Banpodaero, Seochogu, Seoul, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 2 2258 7327, Fax +82 2 2258 7876, Email yimds@ 123456catholic.ac.kr
                Article
                dddt-10-3995
                10.2147/DDDT.S123318
                5153293
                © 2016 Hong et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                absorption, nonmem, pregabalin, transit compartment model

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