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      Attenuation of radiation toxicity by the phosphine resistance factor dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD)

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      1 , 2 , 1 ,
      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Agricultural genetics, Nuclear energy

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          Abstract

          Phosphine gas is an excellent fumigant for disinfesting stored grain of insect pests, but heavy reliance on phosphine has led to resistance in grain pests that threatens its efficacy. Phosphine-resistance was previously reported to be mediated by the enzyme DLD. Here we explore the relationship between phosphine toxicity and genotoxic treatments with the goal of understanding how phosphine works. Specifically, we utilized mutant lines either sensitive or resistant to phosphine, gamma irradiation or UV exposure. The phosphine-resistance mutation in the enzyme of energy metabolism, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase exhibited cross-resistance to UV and ionizing radiation. Two radiation-sensitive mutants that are defective in DNA repair as well as a mutant that is defective in the activation of the DAF-16 stress response transcription factor all exhibit sensitivity to phosphine that exceeds the sensitivity of the wild type control. A radiation resistance mutation in cep-1, the p53 orthologue, that is deficient in double strand break repair of DNA and is also deficient in apoptosis causes radiation-resistance results but sensitivity toward phosphine.

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          SMK-1, an essential regulator of DAF-16-mediated longevity.

          Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) regulates aging in worms, flies, and mice through a well-characterized, highly conserved core set of components. IIS also regulates early developmental decisions, the reproductive status of the animal, innate immunity, and stress-resistance functions. In C. elegans, the sole insulin/IGF-1 receptor, DAF-2, negatively regulates the FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16. We report here on a new component of the IIS longevity pathway, SMK-1, which specifically influences DAF-16-dependent regulation of the aging process in C. elegans by regulating the transcriptional specificity of DAF-16 activity. Localization analysis of DAF-16 places SMK-1 downstream of DAF-16's phosphorylation-dependent relocation to the nucleus. Physiological and transcription analyses indicate that smk-1 is required for the innate immune, UV, and oxidative stress but not the thermal stress functions of DAF-16. SMK-1 therefore plays a role in longevity by modulating DAF-16 transcriptional specificity without affecting other processes regulated by IIS.
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            A genetic pathway conferring life extension and resistance to UV stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

            A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the extension of adult life span (Age) seen in several mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans (age-1: an altered aging rate; daf-2 and daf-23: activation of a dauer-specific longevity program; spe-26: reduced fertility; clk-1: an altered biological clock). Using an assay for ultraviolet (UV) resistance in young adult hermaphrodites (survival after UV irradiation), we observed that all these Age mutants show increased resistance to UV. Moreover, mutations in daf-16 suppressed the UV resistance as well as the increased longevity of all the Age mutants. In contrast to the multiple mechanisms initially proposed, these results suggest that a single, daf-16-dependent pathway, specifies both extended life span and increased UV resistance. The mutations in daf-16 did not alter the reduced fertility of spe-26 and interestingly a daf-16 mutant is more fertile than wild type. We propose that life span and some aspects of stress resistance are jointly negatively regulated by a set of gerontogenes (genes whose alteration causes life extension) in C. elegans.
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              Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects.

              Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                p.ebert@uq.edu.au
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 April 2019
                23 April 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 6455
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, ; St Lucia, QLD 4072 Australia
                [2 ]King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), P. O. Box 6086, Riyadh, 11442 Saudi Arabia
                Article
                42678
                10.1038/s41598-019-42678-w
                6478721
                31015501
                47d8a4fe-5c38-4115-a54b-575a69ac24bb
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 30 July 2018
                : 1 April 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100004919, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST);
                Award ID: AU5976671445
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Australian Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (PBCRC3114)
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                Uncategorized
                agricultural genetics,nuclear energy
                Uncategorized
                agricultural genetics, nuclear energy

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