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      Pacritinib protects dendritic cells more efficiently than ruxolitinib

      , , , , ,
      Experimental Hematology
      Elsevier BV

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          Ruxolitinib for Glucocorticoid-Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

          Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major limitation of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation; not all patients have a response to standard glucocorticoid treatment. In a phase 2 trial, ruxolitinib, a selective Janus kinase (JAK1 and JAK2) inhibitor, showed potential efficacy in patients with glucocorticoid-refractory acute GVHD.
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            Long-term treatment with ruxolitinib for patients with myelofibrosis: 5-year update from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 COMFORT-I trial

            Background The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 COMFORT-I trial evaluated the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk myelofibrosis. The primary and planned 3-year analyses of COMFORT-I data demonstrated that ruxolitinib—the first myelofibrosis-approved therapy—reduced splenomegaly and prolonged overall survival versus placebo. Here, we present the final 5-year results. Methods Patients managed in Australia, Canada, and the USA were randomized centrally (interactive voice response system) 1:1 to oral ruxolitinib twice daily (15 or 20 mg per baseline platelet counts) or placebo. Investigators and patients were blinded to treatment. The secondary endpoints evaluated in this analysis were durability of a ≥35% reduction from baseline in spleen volume (spleen response) and overall survival, evaluated in the intent-to-treat population. Safety was evaluated in patients who received study treatment. Results Patients were randomized (September 2009–April 2010) to ruxolitinib (n = 155) or placebo (n = 154). At termination, 27.7% of ruxolitinib-randomized patients and 25.2% (28/111) who crossed over from placebo were on treatment; no patients remained on placebo. Patients randomized to ruxolitinib had a median spleen response duration of 168.3 weeks and prolonged median overall survival versus placebo (ruxolitinib group, not reached; placebo group, 200 weeks; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50–0.96; P = 0.025) despite the crossover to ruxolitinib. The ruxolitinib safety profile remained consistent with previous analyses. The most common new-onset all-grade nonhematologic adverse events starting <12 versus ≥48 months after ruxolitinib initiation were fatigue (29.0 vs 33.3%) and diarrhea (27.8 vs 14.6%). New-onset grade 3 or 4 anemia and thrombocytopenia both primarily occurred within the first 6 months, with no cases after 42 months. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event-related deaths in the ruxolitinib-randomized group were sepsis (2.6%), disease progression (1.9%), and pneumonia (1.9%). Conclusion The final COMFORT-I results continue to support ruxolitinib as an effective treatment for patients with intermediate-2/high-risk MF. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00952289
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              Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Activity of Ruxolitinib

              The JAK-STAT signaling pathway plays a central role in signal transduction in hematopoietic cells, as well as in cells of the immune system. The occurrence in most patients affected by myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) of driver mutations resulting in the constitutive activation of JAK2-dependent signaling identified the deregulated JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway as the major pathogenic mechanism of MPNs. It also prompted the development of targeted drugs for MPNs. Ruxolitinib is a potent and selective oral inhibitor of both JAK2 and JAK1 protein kinases. Its use in patients with myelofibrosis is associated with a substantial reduction in spleen volume, attenuation of symptoms and decreased mortality. With growing clinical experience, concerns about infectious complications, and increased risk of B-cell lymphoma, presumably caused by the effects of JAK1/2 inhibition on immune response and immunosurveillance, have been raised. Evidence shows that ruxolitinib exerts potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Cellular targets of ruxolitinib include various components of both the innate and adaptive immune system, such as natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T helper, and regulatory T cells. On the other hand, immunomodulatory properties have proven beneficial in some instances, as highlighted by the successful use of ruxolitinib in corticosteroid-resistant graft vs. host disease. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of published evidence addressing the key question of the mechanisms underlying ruxolitinib-induced immunosuppression.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Experimental Hematology
                Experimental Hematology
                Elsevier BV
                0301472X
                August 2021
                August 2021
                : 100
                : 37-40
                Article
                10.1016/j.exphem.2021.06.004
                47e16013-4c17-428a-9a66-38b6a6b4d451
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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