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Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas na Graduação Médica – Uma Revisão da Literatura Atual Translated title: Problem-Based Learning Undergraduate Courses in Medicine – A Review of the Current Literature

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      Abstract

      RESUMO A aprendizagem baseada em problemas (ABP) é uma técnica em que a transmissão do conhecimento se dá a partir de casos elaborados com base em casos reais, tendo como principal objetivo a busca da aprendizagem pelo próprio estudante. Este trabalho tem por finalidade revisar os artigos originais publicados nos últimos dois anos sobre o tema, na graduação médica. A maioria dos trabalhos revisados demonstrou bons resultados quando utilizada a ABP, principalmente no que diz respeito a pensamento crítico e habilidades técnicas. O uso concomitante de mais de uma técnica, porém, traz maiores benefícios na formação médica.

      Translated abstract

      ABSTRACT Problem-based learning (PBL) is a technique whereby knowledge is transmitted through cases based on real life situations, aimed at self-motivated learning by the student. This study aims to review original articles published in the last two years on the subject in relation to medical education. It was observed that most of the studies reviewed showed good results when PBL was used, especially with regard to critical thinking and technical skills. The concomitant use of more than one method, however, brings benefits to medical training.

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      Most cited references 53

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      Foundations of problem-based learning: some explanatory notes.

      The present article elaborates on cognitive effects of problem-based learning put forward by Schmidt, De Volder, De Grave, Moust & Patel (1989) and Norman & Schmidt (1992). Its purpose is to discuss, in some detail, the theoretical premises of this approach to learning and instruction. It is argued that problem-based learning, above all, promotes the activation of prior knowledge and its elaboration. Evidence is reviewed demonstrating that these processes actually occur in small-group tutorials and that the processing of new information is indeed facilitated by discussion of a relevant problem. These effects must be attributed to a reorganization taking place in the knowledge structures of students as a result of problem-oriented study. In addition, a cognitive process called epistemic curiosity (or intrinsic interest) is enabled. Some directions for further research are outlined. The contribution starts, however, with a discussion of the philosophical and pedagogical roots of problem-based learning.
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        The effectiveness of problem-based learning compared to traditional teaching in undergraduate psychiatry.

        A change from traditional to problem-based learning (PBL) methods in a psychiatry attachment was evaluated by comparing the learning styles, attitudes to psychiatry and examination performance of 2 cohorts of students. It was hypothesised that the PBL curriculum would result in increased deep learning, decreased surface learning, more favourable attitudes to psychiatry and improved examination performance. It was predicted that students' examination success would be related to the use of deep and strategic learning and favourable attitudes. Consecutive cohorts of Year 2 clinical students taught using a traditional psychiatry curriculum (n = 188) and a PBL curriculum (n = 191) were compared. Students completed the Study Process Questionnaire to assess their learning styles and the Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale at the beginning and end of the attachment. Students completed 2 end-of-attachment examinations, a multiple-choice paper and a viva. The PBL curriculum resulted in significantly better examination performance than did the traditional teaching curriculum, both for multiple-choice questions and the viva. No differences in learning styles or attitudes to psychiatry were found between the curricula. Students were significantly more successful in the examinations if they had received the PBL curriculum, were female, and used strategic learning. Examination performance indicated that the PBL curriculum was more successful than the previous course, but that this improvement was not due to students using more effective learning styles or having more favourable attitudes towards psychiatry. It is possible that students learned more effectively during the teaching sessions in the PBL curriculum, but did not change their preferred learning styles.
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          Evaluating learning among undergraduate medical students in schools with traditional and problem-based curricula.

           Sultan Meo (2013)
          This study aimed to assess knowledge and skills in a respiratory physiology course in traditional versus problem-based learning (PBL) groups in two different medical schools. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected for this study. The first medical school followed the traditional [lecture-based learning (LBL)] curriculum, and the second medical school followed the PBL curriculum. Sixty first-year male medical students (30 students from each medical school) volunteered; they were apparently healthy and of the same age, sex, nationality, and regional and cultural background. Students were taught respiratory physiology according to their curriculum for a period of 2 wk. At the completion of the study period, knowledge was measured based on a single best multiple-choice question examination, and skill was measured based on the objective structured practical examination in the lung function laboratory (respiratory physiology). A Student's t-test was applied for the analysis of the data, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Students belonging to the PBL curriculum obtained a higher score in the multiple-choice question examination (P = 0.001) and objective structured practical examination (P = 0.0001) compared with traditional (LBL) students. Students in the PBL group obtained significantly higher knowledge and skill scores in the respiratory physiology course compared with students in the traditional (LBL) style of medical schools.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rbem
            Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica
            Rev. bras. educ. med.
            Associação Brasileira de Educação Médica
            1981-5271
            December 2015
            : 39
            : 4
            : 614-619
            S0100-55022015000400614 10.1590/1981-52712015v39n4e01282014

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            HEALTH CARE SCIENCES & SERVICES

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