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      Melanopsin modulates refractive development and myopia

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          Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050.

          Myopia is a common cause of vision loss, with uncorrected myopia the leading cause of distance vision impairment globally. Individual studies show variations in the prevalence of myopia and high myopia between regions and ethnic groups, and there continues to be uncertainty regarding increasing prevalence of myopia.
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            Myopia

            The Lancet, 379(9827), 1739-1748
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              Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN.

              Human vision starts with the activation of rod photoreceptors in dim light and short (S)-, medium (M)-, and long (L)- wavelength-sensitive cone photoreceptors in daylight. Recently a parallel, non-rod, non-cone photoreceptive pathway, arising from a population of retinal ganglion cells, was discovered in nocturnal rodents. These ganglion cells express the putative photopigment melanopsin and by signalling gross changes in light intensity serve the subconscious, 'non-image-forming' functions of circadian photoentrainment and pupil constriction. Here we show an anatomically distinct population of 'giant', melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in the primate retina that, in addition to being intrinsically photosensitive, are strongly activated by rods and cones, and display a rare, S-Off, (L + M)-On type of colour-opponent receptive field. The intrinsic, rod and (L + M) cone-derived light responses combine in these giant cells to signal irradiance over the full dynamic range of human vision. In accordance with cone-based colour opponency, the giant cells project to the lateral geniculate nucleus, the thalamic relay to primary visual cortex. Thus, in the diurnal trichromatic primate, 'non-image-forming' and conventional 'image-forming' retinal pathways are merged, and the melanopsin-based signal might contribute to conscious visual perception.
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                Journal
                Experimental Eye Research
                Experimental Eye Research
                Elsevier BV
                00144835
                January 2022
                January 2022
                : 214
                : 108866
                Article
                10.1016/j.exer.2021.108866
                34838844
                47ee9119-fc8f-475e-a510-a8c208f0166b
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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