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      A Motor Theory of Sleep-Wake Control: Arousal-Action Circuit

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      Annual Review of Neuroscience

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep are characterized by distinct electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and autonomic profiles. The circuit mechanism coordinating these changes during sleep-wake transitions remains poorly understood. The past few years have witnessed rapid progress in the identification of REM and NREM sleep neurons, which constitute highly distributed networks spanning the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Here we propose an arousal-action circuit for sleep-wake control in which wakefulness is supported by separate arousal and action neurons, while REM and NREM sleep neurons are part of the central somatic and autonomic motor circuits. This model is well supported by the currently known sleep and wake neurons. It can also account for the EEG, EMG, and autonomic profiles of wake, REM, and NREM states and several key features of their transitions. The intimate association between the sleep and autonomic/somatic motor control circuits suggests that a primary function of sleep is to suppress motor activity.

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          Most cited references 120

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          A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.

          Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease.
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            Modulation of striatal projection systems by dopamine.

            The basal ganglia are a chain of subcortical nuclei that facilitate action selection. Two striatal projection systems--so-called direct and indirect pathways--form the functional backbone of the basal ganglia circuit. Twenty years ago, investigators proposed that the striatum's ability to use dopamine (DA) rise and fall to control action selection was due to the segregation of D(1) and D(2) DA receptors in direct- and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons. Although this hypothesis sparked a debate, the evidence that has accumulated since then clearly supports this model. Recent advances in the means of marking neural circuits with optical or molecular reporters have revealed a clear-cut dichotomy between these two cell types at the molecular, anatomical, and physiological levels. The contrast provided by these studies has provided new insights into how the striatum responds to fluctuations in DA signaling and how diseases that alter this signaling change striatal function.
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              Neural substrates of awakening probed with optogenetic control of hypocretin neurons.

              The neural underpinnings of sleep involve interactions between sleep-promoting areas such as the anterior hypothalamus, and arousal systems located in the posterior hypothalamus, the basal forebrain and the brainstem. Hypocretin (Hcrt, also known as orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus are important for arousal stability, and loss of Hcrt function has been linked to narcolepsy. However, it is unknown whether electrical activity arising from Hcrt neurons is sufficient to drive awakening from sleep states or is simply correlated with it. Here we directly probed the impact of Hcrt neuron activity on sleep state transitions with in vivo neural photostimulation, genetically targeting channelrhodopsin-2 to Hcrt cells and using an optical fibre to deliver light deep in the brain, directly into the lateral hypothalamus, of freely moving mice. We found that direct, selective, optogenetic photostimulation of Hcrt neurons increased the probability of transition to wakefulness from either slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep. Notably, photostimulation using 5-30 Hz light pulse trains reduced latency to wakefulness, whereas 1 Hz trains did not. This study establishes a causal relationship between frequency-dependent activity of a genetically defined neural cell type and a specific mammalian behaviour central to clinical conditions and neurobehavioural physiology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Neuroscience
                Annu. Rev. Neurosci.
                Annual Reviews
                0147-006X
                1545-4126
                July 08 2019
                July 08 2019
                : 42
                : 1
                : 27-46
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-061813
                © 2019

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